HistoryRoomOVERSIZERS 164. M62a 1887 c.l v.l WVMH

American medicinal plants; : an ill / Millspaugh,

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AMERICAN

MEDICINAL PLANTS;

AN

Illustrated and Descriptive Guide

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Theiu History, Frkpakation, Ciiemistk\, anh

PhVSIi ILOGIt A1, El'IKCl S.

m

CHARLES F. MILLSPAUGH, M:.p.

ILLUSTRATED BY THE AUTHOR.

BOERICKE & TAFEL.

NEW YORK: PHlI.ADEI.l'HIA:

145 GRAND STREET. iOli ARCH STREET.

Copyright, 1887, by BoERlCKE & Tafel.

CAXTON PRESS OF SHEKMAN A CO., PHILADEI-PIIIA.

TO

John Hill Millspaugh, Artist,

Mv BEi.dVED Father,

To Whom I am Inukhtkh i ok Whatever I mav Possess OF Ar'1 in Dkawino and Coloring.

THE PLATES

Are Gratekl;m.v Dedicated.

IX)

Timothy ¥. Allen, A.M., iM.D.,

My Honored Professor and Preceptor,

the text of this work

Is Respectfully Inscribed.

PROSPECTUS.

The American plants now proven and incorporated in the Homceopathic Materia Medica, have become not only numerous, but of great promise as therapeutic agents ; and the fact that the greater part of them are not officinal in the United States Pharmacopeia, has led the author to place them before his profession, in such a manner that their distinguishing characteristics may become known to all who wish to thoroughly understand the agents they use in the cure of diseased conditions.

Most of these plants grow within the daily ride of country practitioners and should be well known to them, in order that they may make fresh tinctures for their own use, when necessary to avoid delay.

The author has in every case drawn and colored the plants represented in this work, by his ozvn hand, from the specimens as they stood in the soil ; making mathematically accurate drawings, and avoiding the misrepresentations of wilted individuals, or too highly colored fancy pictures.

The work contains one hundred and eighty colored illustrations, and com- plete text, of all the proven plants indigenous and naturalized in the United States; arranged generically according to the numerical order of the plates.

A glossary of botanical terms, and complete inde.x, together with a carefully arranged bibliography, are given in the appendix.

P R E F A C E

In preparing tor the use ol students of our materia medica, this systematic account of American proven plants, I have inchided only such as may be found in that district of North America in which most of the Homoeopathic physicians reside.

That many of the plants here described are not purely American is evident, yet all of them are true representatives of the tinctures used in the provings noted: such plants as the Chinese Ailanhis : the Asiatic yEscidus Hippocastanuni : the European Ejipliorbia Lathyns and many others, have received much of their value from provings of individuals growing here. Of the plants represented, i 28 are truly indigenous ; 23 are fully naturalized; 22 are escapes from gardens ; 6 are cultivated ; and one only Is too rare to be of much value to the pharmacist. As regards their location, i 1 7 are generally common throughout the northern portion of the United States ; 27 abound in the Eastern and Atlantic States only; 14 in the Northern States only; 6 in the Southern States: S in the central belt; i only to be found west of the Mississippi ; and 7 are local.

The work has occupied over five years in its publication, and the order in which the plates are numbered gives no idea of time when the plant itself was gathered and its text written. This was determined by m)- ability to locate the plant. It will be necessary to remember this, as many plants have been proven, and much more discovered concerning those represented since the work began, and the indi- viduals were described. Each plant and its accompanying text should be looked upon as an article by itself written in the light of the time ; the author has, how- ever, as fully as was in his power, searched all important references at his com- mand, and hopes that he has left out nothing that would increase the value of the work in the light in which it is written.

The following explanation ot the arrangement and objects of the work is deemed necessary to its completeness : First, the natural order under which the genus falls is given in prominent type, and, should the order be a large one, the tribe then follows to give a better idea of its place ; then the genus is mentioned in black-face type, together with the name of the scientist who formed it ; to the genus, wherever possible, is appended a foot-note, showing the derivation of the name ; and, lastly, in this department, is given the old, or sexual, arrangement according to Linnseus.

All of this is considered essential, as it is conceded that plants ol like botanical, and therefore chemical, nature, have a similar action, yiving- a class of what we may term generic symptoms, though each has its special {specific) symptoms tliat characterize it. It is for this reason that the plants here treated of are arranged as above; for, if alphabetically arranged, the work would have lost at least one- half its value.

VUl

PREFACE.

The most prominent type gives in display the name of the remedy, i. e., the name under which the plant was proven, and which characterizes it to us as Homoeopathists ; this is followed by the most generally accepted vulgarism.

The synonymy which follows has become necessary, as most species, unfor- tunately, have received more than one name, resulting mostly from two cau.^es : first, that of different views held concerning the limits of the genera and species ; and, second, from an unavoidable ignorance in the discoverer, in a given locality, of the previous discovery of the plant in another. The descriptive binominal sys- tem, invented by Linnceus in 1753, is the earliest date any such names can have, though many plants had been quite fully described before that time. It becomes, therefore, quite a necessity in all botanical works that full mention of aliases should be made, to render reference to earlier writers satisfactory.

I have made as full a department as was possible, in the limit of time allowed in writing the articles, of the common names, considering them very essential in a work of this kind, for many physicians, in their country practice, will meet hundreds of patients who will tell them of some plant they have been using in the case before his arrival, and it is sometimes necessary that he should know what species has been made use of.

In describing the plants, I have condensed even at a great sacrifice of grammatical construction, using botanical terms freely, but not unreservedly; where several species of a genijs occur in sequence, the genus is separately described to avoid repetition, and under the first genus of any order the natural order itself is described in brief. Under the description of each order I have taken pains to mention all the proven plants belonging to it, and then mentioning the prevailing qualities of all the important medicinal plants outside of our provings, that the student may become acquainted with the qualities prevailing in the class of drugs under which the species considered falls. .Slight mention is then made of edible and economic species by way of a further understanding of the class.

In the ne.xt rubric, the first paragraph is given to the origin of the plant, its geographical distribution here, its favorite locations and time of fiowering ; this is followed by a concise history of the species, especially that much as may be of interest in the light of our use of it; this is completed by a mention of the various preparations in use in general Pharmacopceias.

In the preparation of the tinctures, I have innovated but little, and that only where considered absolutely essential, holding to the text of the American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia in nearly all cases. The description of the physical properties is,' however, original, and I hope will prove of value, as, I am sorry to say, the preparations of all our pharmacies do not agree in strength; any tinc- ture varying markedly from the appearances here given should be looked upon with suspicion.

In compiling the rubric relating to the chemical nature of the plants, great pains have been taken to arrive at the solubility and frequency, as well as the nature and stability of the principles ; of course, to one man very little time can be spared for work in organic analyses of any stated number of species,

PREFACE. ix

but little, therefore, that is original investigation will be found here ; much com- parative and differentiating study has, however, been spent upon this subject, and all brought up to the date of the article. There is something, nevertheless, very much against conclusiveness regarding organic analyses, as it would seem that the more a given species is analyzed the greater is the number of con- stituents found, savoring much of artificial re-arrangement of atoms.

Under the head of physiological action, only cases of actual toxic effects are, as a rule, noted, as the work should in no wise be looked upon as a symptoma- tolog)^ its scope being pharmacological only. Observations upon the sphere of action and organs involved, are studiously omitted, except under such drugs as have caused death and yielded opportunities for post-mortem examinations.

The original intention in regard to drawing the plates from the plants as they stood in the soil, has, in the majority of cases, been rigidly adhered to ; but so little spare time is allotted to the general practitioner, that many long trips into other States than his own cannot be taken, and thus the aid of expe- rienced botanists was called in. All the plates, however, have been executed from fresh, living individuals, gathered with especial reference to typical features, propitious soils, and natural locations. Tlie drawings are all made to a mechanical scale, and, unless otherwise stated, are natural size ; the coloring I have bent every endeavor to have natural, without regard to artistic beauty or pleasing fancy ; some may be criticised as being too brilliant, others not brilliant enough. Suffice it to say, however, that natural color and texture cannot be exactly reproduced, nor is lithography a perfect art.

In conclusion, I offer my thanks to many who have kindly contributed to whatever success this work may attain. To the many authors from whose books, pamphlets, and articles I have drawn, I must generalize my obligation, hoping that personal references in the text will in all cases be found satisfactory. To Professor Asa Gray, who, in disinterested kindness, allowed me the unreserved use of his many most valuable works on our American Flora, my special con- sideration is due. To the following botanists who willingly lent their aid in procuring many species not growing near my locations, I can but generally acknowledge: Mr. J. H. Sears, Salem, Mass.; Dr. T. F. Lucy, Elmira, N. Y. ; Mr. F. V. Coville, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Mr. C. H. Gross, Landisville, N. J. ; Mr. J. A. Shafer, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Miss Mary C, Cuthbert, Augusta, Ga. ; Messrs. J. U. and C. G. Lloyd, Cincinnati, O. ; Mr. Jan^es Galen, Rawlinsville, Pa. ; Miss M. C. Reynolds, St. Augustine, Fla. ; Dr. Thos. M. Wood, Wilmington, N. C. ; Rev.. E. \'. Campbell, St. Cloud, Minn. ; and Mr, A. B. Seymour, Champaign, 111.

C. F. MiLLSPAUGH.

March I. 1SS7.

REMEDIES.

Abies Canadensis, 164

nigra, 163 Absinthium, 88 Actoea alba, 10

racemosa, 1 1 ^Escnhis glabra, 44

Hippocastanum, 43 ^thusa Cynapium, 65 Agrostemma Githago, 31 Ailantus, 35 Aletris, 172

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, 82 Ampelopsis, 40 Anagallis, 108 Angelica atropurpurea, 64 Anthemis nobilis, 84 Apocynum andros?emifolium, 132

cannabinum, 133 Aralia quinquefolia, 70

racemosa, 69 Argemone, 20 Artemisia vulgaris, 87 Arum dracontium, 168

triphyllum, 167 Asclepias cornuli, 134 tuberosa, 135 Asimina triloba, 13 Baptisia, 52 Benzoin, 145 Berberinum, 92 BerberiSj 15 Bursa-Pastoris, 25 Caltha, 7

Cannabis sativa, 154 Carya alba, 157 Castanea vesca, 158 Catalpa, 109 Caulophyllura, 16 Celtis, 152 Cephalanthus, 76 Chelidonium, 21 Clielone glabra, 113 Chenopodium antheliiiinticum,

140 Chimaphila, 104

Chionanthus, 136

Cichorium, 93

Cicuta maculata, 67

Cimicifuga, 1 1

Cistus, 28

Collinsonia, 119

Conium, 68

Convolvulus, 1 23

Cornus circinata, 72 florida, 71 sericea, 73

Cypripedium pubescens, 170

Dioscorea, 174

Dirca pahistris, 146

Drosera, 29

Dulcamara, 124

EpigEea, loi

Epilobium, 59

Equisetum, 179^

Erechthites, 90

Erigeron, 80

Eryngium, 62-

Euonymus atropurpureus, 42

Eupatorium perfoliatum, 79 purpureum, 78

Euphorbia corollata, 148

hypericifolia, 147 Ipecacuanha, 149 Lathyris, 1-50

Euphrasia, 115

Fagopyrum, 142

Fragaria, 55

Fraxinus, 137

Gaultheria, 102

Gelsemium, 130

Genista, 46

Geranium maculatum, 32

Geum rivale, 54

Ginseng, 70

Gnaphalium, 89

Gymnocladus, 53

Haraamelis, 58

Hedeoma, 118

Helianthemum Canadense, 28

Helianthus, 83

Helleborus viridis, 8

Helonias, 177

Hepatica, 2

Hydrastis, 9

Hydrophyllum, 122

Hyoscyamus, 126

Hypericum, 30

Inula, 81

Iris versicolor, i 73

Jacea, 27

Juglans cinerea, 156

Juniperus Virginiana, 166

Kalmia, 103

Lachnanthes, 171

Lactuca, 96

Lamium, 121

1-apathum, 144

Lappa, 92

Leptandra, 114

Lilium superbum, 178

Linaria, in

Lobelia cardinalis, 97 inflata, 99 syphilitica, 98

Lupulus, 155

Lycopodium, 180

Lycopus, 117

Magnolia glauca, 12

Melilotus, 49

Menispermum,. 14

Mentha piperita, 116'

Menyanthes, 129

Millefolium,- 85

Mitchella, 77

Monotropa, 105

Myrica, 160

NabaJus,. 94

Nymphsea, 18

Oenothera, 60

Opuntia, 61

Ostrya, 159

Pastinaca, 63

Penthorum, 57

Phaseolus, 5 i

Phytolacca, 139

xu

REMEDIES.

Plantago, 107 Podophyllum, 17 Polygonum, 141 Populus, 162 Pothos, 169 Prinos, 106 Ptelea, 34

Pulsatilla Nuttalliana, i Pyrus, 56 Ranunculus acris, 6

bulbosus, 5 repens, 4 sceleratus, 3 Raphanus, 26 Rhamnus catharticus, 41 Rhus aromatica, 39

glabra, 36

radicans, 38

Toxicodendron, 38

Rhus venenata, 37 Robinia, 50 Rumex, 143 Salix purpurea, 161 Sambucus Canadensis, 75 Sanguinaria, 22 Sarracenia, 19 Scrophularia, 112 Scutellaria, 120 Senecio, 91 Senega, 45 Serpentaria, 138 Sinapis alba, 23

nigra, 24 Solanum nigrum, 125 Spigelia Marilandica, 131 Stillingia, 151 Stramoniiun, 129 Symplocarpus, 169

Tabacum, 128 Tanacetum, 86 Taraxacum, 95 Thaspium aureum, 66 Thlaspi Bursa-Pastoris, 25 Thuja, 165 Trifolium, 47

repens, 48 Trillium, 175

pendulum, 1 75 . Triosteum, 74 Urtica Urens, 153 TJva-ursi, 100 Veratrum viride, 176 Verbascum, no Viola tricolor, 27 Xanthoxylum, 33 Zizia, 66

NATURAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE PLANTS INCLUDED IN THIS WORK.

Dicotyledonous Ph.enogams.

RANUNCULACE^.

Aneiiwnece.

Anemone patens, var Nuttal-

liana, i Anemone triloba, 2 RanunciilecE.

Ranunculus sceleratus, 3 repens, 4 bulbosus, 5 acris, 6 Hellebori)iea.

Caltha palustris, 7 Helleborus viridis, 8 Cimicifugece.

Hydrastis Canadensis, 9 ActDsa alba, 10 Cimicifuga racemosa, 11

MAGNOLIACE.(E.

Magnolia glauca, 1 2

ANONACEiE.

Asimina triloba, 13

MENISPERMACEiE.

Menispermum Canadense, 14

BERBERIDACEiE.

Berberis vulgaris, 15 Caulophyllum thalictroides, 16 Podophyllum peltatum, 17

NYMPHACE^.

Nymphaea odorata, 18

SARRACENIACEiE.

Sarracenia purpurea, 19

PAPAVERACEiE.

Argemone Mexicana, 20 Chelidonium majus, 21 Sanguinaria Canadensis, 22

CRUCIFER^.

BrassicecR.

Brassica alba, 23 nigra, 24 Lepidinciz.

Capsella Bursa-pastoris, 25 Raphanece.

Raphanus Raphanistrum, 26

VIOLACE^.

Viola tricolor, 27

CISTACE-(E.

Helianthemum Canadense, 28

DROSERACE^.

Drosera rotundifolia, 29

HYPERICACE^.

Hypericum perforatum, 30

CARYOPHYLLACE^.

Lychnis Githago, 31

GERANIACEiE.

Geranium maculatum, 32

RUTACE^.

Xanthoxylum Americanum, 33 Ptelea trifoliata, 34

SIMARUBACEiE.

Ailantus glandulosus, 35

ANACARDIACEyE.

Rhus glabra, 36 venenata, 37 Toxicodendron, 38 aromatica, 39

VITACE^.

Ampelopsis quinquefolia, 40

RHAMNACE.(E.

Rharnnus catharticus, 41

CELASTRACE^.

Euonymus atropurpureus, 42

SAPINDACE^.

^sculus Hippocastanum, 43 glabra, 44

POLYGALACEiE.

Polygala Senega, 45

LEGUMINOSiE.

Goiistex.

Genista tinctoria, 46 TrifoliecE. Trifoliuni pratense, 47

repens, 48 Melilotus officinalis, 49 alba, 49 Galegece. Robinia Pseudacacia, 50

.XIV

NATURAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE PLANTS.

Phaseolea.

Phaseolus vulgaris, 5 1 Sophordr.

Baptisia tinctoria, 52 CiFsalpinea.

Gymnocladus Canadensis, 53

ROSACEA.

DryadeiB.

Geum rivale, 54

Fragaria vesca, 55 FomecB.

Pirns Americana, 56

CRASSULACEyE.

Penthorum sedoides, 57

HAMAMELACE^. Hamamelis Virginica, 58

ONAGRACE.^.

Epilobium palustre, var. lineare.

59 Qinotliera biennis, 60

CACTACE^.

0[mntia vulgaris, 61

UMBELLIFER.(E.

Eryngium yuccaefolium, 62 Pastinaca sativa, 63 Archangelica atropurpurea, 64 ^tiiusa cynapium, 65 Thaspium aureum, 66 Cicuta maculata, 67 Conium marulatum, 6S

ARALIACE.(E.

Aralia racemosa, 69

quinquefolia, 70

CORNACEiE.

Cornus florida, 71

circinata, 72 sericea, 73

CAPRIFOLIACEiE.

Loiiicercd'.

Triosteum perfuliatmn, 74 SambitceiC.

Sambncus Canadensis, 75

RUBIACE^ffi.

Ciiichoiica:.

Cephalanthus occidentalis, 76 Mitchella repens, 77

COMPOSIT^E.

TUBUL1FL0R.15.

Eupatoriacea.

Eupatoriuni purpureum, 78 perfoliatuni, 79 Asterpidea.

Erigeron Canadense, So

Inula Helenium, 81 Senecionidea.

Ambrosia artemisisefolia, 82

Helianthus annuus, 83

Anthemis nobilis, 84

Achillea Millefolium, 85

Tanacetum vulgare, 86

Artemisia vulgaris, 87

absinthium, 88

Gnaphalium ]jolycephalum, 89

Erechthites hieracifolia, 90

Senecio aureus, 91 Cxnarca:.

Lappa officinalis, 92

LIGULIFLOR/E.

Cichorium Intybus, 93 Prenanthes serpentaria, 94 Taraxacum Dens-leonis, 95 Lactuca Canadensis, 96

LOBELIACE.(E.

Lobelia cardinalis, 97 syphilitica, 98 inflata, 99

ERICACEAE.

Ericincie.

Arctostaphylos Uva ursi, 100

Epigfea repens, loi

Gaultheria procumbens, 102

Kalmia latifolia, 103 Pyrolca.

Chimaphila umbellata, 104 Monofropde.

Monotropa uniflora, 105

AQUIFOLIACEiE.

Ilex verticillata, 106

PLANTAGINACE^.

Plantago major, 107

PRIMULACEiE.

Anagallis arvensis, 108

BIGNONIACEiE.

Catalpa bignonioides, 109

SCROPHULARIACE.<E.

Verbose ccc.

Verbascum Thapsus, no Aiifirrkiiiece.

Linaria vulgaris, 1 1 1 Chelonea.

Scrophularia nodosa, 112

Clielone glabra, 1 13 Veronicea.

Veronica Virginica, 1 14 Eiiplu-asiece.

Euphrasia officinalis, 115

LABIAT.E.

Satiiriea.

Mentha piperita, ti6 Lycopus Virgin icus, 1 1 7 Hedeoma pulegioides, 118 Collinsonia Canadensis, 119

Stachydeic.

Scutellaria lateriflora, 120 Lamium album, 121

HYDROPHYLLACEiE.

Hydrophyllum Virgin icum.

122

CONVOLVULACE-(E.

Convolvulus arvensis, 123

SOLANACEiE.

Solanum Dulcamara, 124

nigrum, 125 Hyoscyamus niger, 126 Djtura Stramonium, 127 Nicotiana Tabacum, 12S

GENTIANACE>(E.

Menyanthes trifoliata, 129

NATURAL ARRANGEMENT OF THE PLANTS.

XV

LOGANIACEiE.

Gelsemium sempervirens, 130 Spigelia Marilandica, 131

APOCYNACE.E.

Apocynum androsffitnifolium,

132 Apocynum cannabinum, 133

ASCLEPIADACE^.

Asclepias cornuti, 134 tuberosa, 135

OLEACEiE.

Chionanthus Virginica, 136 Fraxinus Americana, 137

ARISTOLOCHIACE^.

Aristolochia Serpentaria, 138

PHYTOLACCACEiE.

Phytolacca decandra, 139

CHENOPODIACEiE.

Chenopodium album,

var. anthelminticum, 1 40

POLYGONACE^.

Polygonum acre, 141 Fagopyrum esculentum, 142 Rumex crispus, 143

obtusifolius, 144

LAURACEvE,

Lindera Benzoin. 145

THYMELEACEiE.

Dirca palusfris, 146

EUPHORBIACE>(E.

AppeiuiiculatcB.

Euphorbia hypericifolia, 147 corollata, 148 Exappendiculatce.

Ipecacuanha, 149

Lathyris, 150

Stillingia sylvatica, 151

URTICACE^.

Ulmacea. '

Celtis occidentalis, 152 UrlicecE.

LTrtica urens, 153

CanimbinecB.

Cannabis sativa, 154 Humulus Lupulus, 155

JUGLANDACE^.

Juglans cinerea, 156 Carya alba, 157

CUPULIFER^.

Castanea vesca,

var. Americana, 158 Ostrya Virginica, 159

MYRICACE^.

Myrica cerifera, 160

SALICACEiE.

Salix purpurea, i6t Populus treniuloidcs, 162

CONIFERS.

AbietineLe.

Abies nigra, 163

Canadensis, 164

Cupressinea. Thuja occidentalis, 165 Juniperus Virginiana, 166

MONOCOTYLEDONOUS PhtENOGAMS.

ARACE^.

Arisaema triphyllum, 167 dracontium, 168 Symplocarpus fcetidus, 169

ORCHIDACEiE.

Cypripedium pubescens, 1 70

H-(EMORODACE^E.

Lachnanthes tinctoria, 171 Aletris farinosa, 172

IRIDACE.^.

Iris versicolor, 1 73

DIOSCOREACEiE.

Dioscorea villosa, 174

LILIACE-(E.

TrilUdea.

Trillium erectum, 175

var. album, 175 Melanthiccc.

Veratrum viride, 176

Chamrelirium luteum, 177 Liliece.

Lilium superbum, 178

AcROGENOus Cryptogams.

EQUISETACE^.

Equisetum hyemale, 179

LYCOPODIACEiE.

Lycopodium clavatum, iSo

PLATES I TO i66.

SERIES

PHv^NOGAMIA.

Plants producing true flowers and seeds.

CLASS

DICOTYLEDONS

Plants with stems composed of bark, wood, and pith ;

netted veined leaves; and a pair or more of

opposite or whorled seed-leaves

(cotyledons).

[T.i precede plate I.]

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^in.adnatdel.etpinxt ANEMONE PaTENS, var. NUTTALLIANA.Gray.

N. ORD-RANUNCULACE^.

GENUS. ANEMONE,* LINN. SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGNIA.

PULSATILLA NUTTALLIANA,

PASQUE FLOWER.

SYN. ANEMONE PATENS, VAR. NUTTALLIANA, GRAY; ANEMONE NUTTALLIANA, D. C. ; ANEMONE LUDOVICIANA, NUTT. ; ANE- MONE PLAVESCBNS, ZUCC. ; CL^EMATIS HIRSUTISSIMA, POIR; PULSATILLA PATENS, GRAY ; PULSATILLA PATENS VAR. ; WOLF- GANGIANA, TRAUVT; PULSATILLA NUTTALLIANA, GRAY.

COM. NAMES. PASQUE FLOWER (CROCUS, MAY FLOWER, PRAIRIE FLOWER, AMERICAN PULSATILLA, HARTSHORN PLANT, GOSLIN- WEED).

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE FRESH PLANT, ANEMONE PATENS, VAR.

NUTTAl.LIANA, GRAY.

Description. This beautiful prairie flower grows to a height of from 4 to lo inches, from a branched perennial rooL Stem erect and hairy, encircled near the flower by a many-cleft, silky-haired involucre, composed of numerous linnear, acute lobes, which form the true stem-leaves. Leaves upon long hairy petioles, rising more or less erect from the rootstock ; they are ternately divided, the lateral divisions sessile and deeply 2-cleft, the central stalked and 3-cleft ; all the seg- ments deeply incised into narrow, linnear, acute lobes, smooth above and hairy beneath. Inflorescence a conspicuous, terminal, villous, light purplish-blue flower, fully developed and fertilized before the appearance of the true leaves. Sepals generally 5, at first incumbent, then spreading, answering to petals in appearance ; villous upon their outer surface. Petals wanting, or replaced by minute glandu- lar bodies, resembling abortive stamens. Stamens innumerable, in a dense cir- clet surrounding the pistils; filaments slender; anthers extrose, 2-celled ; pollen with three longitudinal, deep sulci. Pistils numerous, in a dense cluster, separate, hairy ; style long and slender, with a somewhat recurved summit ; stigma indefinate. Fruit a plumose head, similar to that of Clematis ; carpels i -seeded, with long feathery tails, composed of the lengthened, persistent, hairy styles. Seeds sus- pended.

Ranunculacese. This natural order is composed of herbs and woody climbers.

* Ai-t/io;, aminos, tlie wind. So named upon the supposition that the flowers of this genus only opened when the wind was blowing.

1-2

Its genera are various, but easily distinguishable by the acrid juice prevailing to a greater or lesser extent in all species, and by the disconnection of the parts of its flowers. The tribes vary gready in regard to the sepci'.s ; in some they are want- ing, and replaced by petal-like organs ; in others, very fugacious ; while in one only, in this country, are they present in the mature flower. The stamens are numerous, furnished with short anthers. The fruit varies from a dry pod to a fleshy berry; the ovules are anatropous, so distinguished by the dorsal rhaphe when suspended ; the seeds have a minute embryo, invested with fleshy albumen- The leaves are usually palmately, and generally ternately, divided, and are desti- tute of stipules. This family of plants, many of which are poisonous, contains, beside those treated of in this work, the following species of special interest to us : Clematis ereeta, Helleborus iiiger, Delphiniiini Staph isagria, Aconituni iiapel- lus, eanimai-nm, ferox, and lyeoetomwu and Paofiia officinalis.

History and Habitat.— The American pasque flower is found in abundance upon the prairies from Wisconsin northward, and westward to the Rocky Moun- tains, flowering from March to April. Lieberg says'"'"' that in Eastern Dakota this plant attains a luxuriance of growth never met with farther east, and that it wholly disappears west of the Missouri. Its habit of being in flower about Easter- tide gave it the principal distinguishing name, "Pasque flower;" its peculiar effect upon the nose and eyes when crushed between the fingers gave it another, but local, appellation, "Hartshorn plant ;"f and the silky-hariness of the involucre and newly-appearing leaves caused the children in localities to term it " Goslin weed."

The U. S. Ph. allows the use of this species under the drug Pulsatilla, with or in place of Herba Pulsatilla nigricantis.

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The whole, fresh, flowering plant is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp mixed thoroughly with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After thorough mixture the whole is allowed to stand eight days in a well-stoppered bottle. The tincture thus prepared, after straining and filtering, should have a light seal-brown color by transmitted light, an acrid astringent taste, and a decidedly acid reaction.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— I am unable to find any data upon this spe- cies. It is said to have been found similar to its European relative, Ajiemone Pulsatilla, which, together vi'xth Anenione nemorosa and prateiisis (Eu.), contains:

Anemonin, Cj-Hj,,0„. This body forms in colorless, klinorhombic prisms, from an aqueous distillate of the herb when the volatile oil is present. When dry it has a sharp and burning taste and neutral reaction. It softens at 150° (302.0° P.), and soon decomposes ; it dissolves in hot water and alcohol, slightly also in cold.

Anemonic Acid, Cj.Hj^O.. This amorphous, white powder separates from the aqueous distillate together with the above and under the same circumstances.

* Bot. Gaz., 1884, p. 104. t ''''"■"'. 18S4, p. 77.

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It is a tasteless acid, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, oils, and dilute acids, but enters into combination with alkalies. (Wittstein.)

Oil of Anemone.— This acrid yellow oil separates from the aqueous infusion of the plant, and, owing to the presence of the water, soon breaks down into the bodies mentioned above.

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— The following represents the general action of the tincture when taken in moderate doses, as reported by Drs. Burk, Duncan, and Wesselhoeft : Profuse lacrymation, with smarting and burning of the eyes, mouth, and throat, followed by mucoid discharges ; sharp pains about the stomach and bowels, with rumbling of flatus ; pressure in the region of the stomach as from a weight; frequent urging to urinate, with an increased secretion; a tickling in the throat and constant inclination to cough ; rheumatic pains, especially in the thighs, with erysipeloid eruptions, especially about the limbs ; heat and feverish- ness, with great debility.

The action of this drug will be seen to be very like that of Herba Pidsatlllcc nigricantis, differing mostly in a less intense action.

Description of Plate i.

I. Whole plant, from St. Cloud, Minn.,* April 24th, 1S84.

2. Full-grown leaf in outline.

3. Sexual organs.

4. Receptacle.

5. Pistil (enlarged).

6. Stamen (enlarged).

7. Pollen X 380.

8. Ripe carpel.

9. Fruit.

* One of a number of typical living plants, sent me, with their natural soil intact, by Rev. E. V. Campbell, through who^e kindness 1 also procured the full-grown leaf and ripe fruit.

2.

Oj.TU.ailnatdel.etpiiixt

Anemone Hepatica , Unn.

N. ORD. RANUNCULACE^.

Tribe.-ANEMONE/E.

GENUS. A N E M O N E , LINN. SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

HEPATICA.

LIVER-LEAF.

SYN.— ANEMONE HEPATICA, LINN.; HEPATICA TRILOBA, CHAIX. ; HEPATICA TRILOBA, VAR. AMERICANA, D. C. ; HEPATICA TRI- LOBA, VAR. OBTUSA, PURSH. ; HEPATICA AMERICANA, KER.

COM. NAMES. LIVER -LEAF, HEPATICA,* ROUND -LOBED HEPATICA, LIVER-WORT.t LIVER-WEED, TREFOIL, HERB TRINITY, KIDNEY- WORT ; (PR.) HEPATIQUE ; (GER.), EDELLEBBRE.

A TINCTURE OF TBI:; FRESH LEAVES OF ANEMONE HEPATICA, LINN.

Description.— This dwarf herb, so eagerly sought after as one of our earhest spring flowers, grows from radical scaly buds amid the thick, leathery leaves of the previous year's growth. Root fibrous, perennial. Steifi none. Leaves ever- green, all radical on long, slender petioles; light green and hairy when young; dark olive-green above and purplish beneath, when old, and while the plant is in blossom ; they are cordate in general outline, 3-lobed, the lobes ovate, obtuse. Liflorescencc solitary, terminal, on long, hairy scapes, circinate, then erect. Invo- lucre simple, composed of three entire, obtuse, hairy, persistent leaves, somewhat resembling a calyx, from its close proximity to the flower. Calyx composed of from 6 to 9 ovate, obtuse, petaloid sepals, varying in color from pure white to a deep purplish-blue with white borders ; these latter, I have noticed, are always destitute of stamens. \ S'tainens numerous, hypogynous ; jilanienls long, slender, and smooth ; rt;///i^;'j- short, 2 -celled. /'/j-^/Zf 1 2 to 20, hairy ; ovary x-c^^A; ovules one in each cell, suspended, anatropous ; style single, short, pointed ; stigma a stig- matose marginal line, extending down the inner side of the style. Achenia loosely aggregated in a globose head, ovate-oblong, hairy, tipped with the short persistent style ; seed filling the whole cell to which it conforms.

History and Habitat. Hepatica is a native of the colder portions of the North Temperate Zone, growing in rich, open woods as far as the limit of trees. In North America it grows from Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri, east and north- east to the Atlantic; flowering, in some seasons, as early as March, and continu- ing in flower until May. This plant was placed in the genus Anemone by

* Errariirdf, (^fl///J<;j, affecting the liver; or, 'iji-ap, c^ar, the liver, from a fancied resemblance of the leaves to that organ, or their action upon it.

f The proper liverwort is Marchiintia polymoi'pha^ a cryptogamous plant [Afitscales) of the order Hepaticets. X Author in Bull. Ton: Club, 1884, p. 55.

2-2

Linnaeus, from whence it has received several removals, until finally it has been returned to its original place among its congeners. The Liver-leaf has held a place among medicinal plants from ancient times until the present. It is now falling into disuse on account of its mild properties, forming as it does simply a slightly astrin- gent, mucilaginous infusion. It was used in haemoptysis, coughs, and other lung affections, as well as in all diseases of the liver, and in hemorrhoids ; in the latter troubles its exhibition must have met with no very flattering success. As a pectoral it may be taken in the form of an infusion, hot or cold, in almost any amount, as its virtues are not of a powerful or disturbing nature.

Hepatica has been dismissed from the U. S. Ph., and is simply mentioned in the Eclectic Materia Medica.

PART USED AND PREPARATION. -The full-grown leaves of the year are chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alco- hol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After stirring the whole well it is poured into a well- stoppered bottle and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture, separated by straining and filtering, should have a very light greenish- orange color by transmitted light, a slightly astringent taste, and an acid reaction.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.-The only bodies found in this plant are tan- nin, in small amount, sugar, and mucilage. No special analysis has been made to determine an active principle.

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION.— As far as known, Hepatica has very little action upon the system. A farther proving may develop some symptoms in the direc- tion of a slight irritative cough with expectoration.

Description of Plate 2.

I. Whole plant, Binghamton, N. Y., April 27th, 1884.

2. Stamen (enlarged).

3. Pistil (enlargedj.

=4-=

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nafdel.etpinxf

Ranunculus ScELERATUs,Linn.

N. ORD-RANUNCULACE^. Thbe.-RANUNCULE/E.

GENUS.— RANUNCULUS,* LINN.

SEX. SYST.— POLYANDRIA POLYGYNIA.

RANUNCULUS SCELERATUS.

C URSED CR 0 W'FO 0 T.

SYN.— RANUNCULUS SCELERATUS, LINN.

COM. NAMES. CURSED CROWFOOT, CELERY-LEAVED CROWFOOT,

MARSH CROWFOOT; (FR.) RANONCULE ; (GER.) SCHARF HAHNEN-

FUSS.

A TINCTURE OF THE WHOLE PL.A.NT RANUNCULUS SCELERATUS, LINN.

Description. This smooth perennial herb grows to a height of about i foot. Stem erect, glabrous, thick, succulent, hollow, and branching ; juice acrid and blis- tering. Leaves thickish, the upper sessile or nearly so, the lobes oblong-linear and nearly entire ; stem-leaves 3-lobed, rounded ; root-leaves 3-parted, but not to the base, the lobes obtusely cut and toothed ; petioles of the lower leaves long, and sheathing at their dilated bases. Flotvers small, pale-yellow; sepals reflexed ; petals scarcely exceeding the sepals. Fruit an oblong, cylindrical head ; carpels numer- ous, barely mucronate.

Ranunculus. This large genus contains, in North America, 53 species and ;}^2, varieties, characterized as follows: Root annual or perennial. Leaves mostly radical, those of the stems alternate and situated at the base of the branches, variously lobed, cut, or dissected, seldom entire. Liflorescence solitary or some- times corymbed ; flowers yellow, rarely white. Sepals 5, rarely only 3, not append- aged, deciduous, and imbricated in the bud. Petals 5, or often more, flat, with a little pit, pore, gland, or nectariferous scale at the base inside. Stamens numer- ous ; filaments filiform. Style short, subulate. Fi'tiit a cylindrical or rounded head, composed of numerous carpels ; achcnia mosdy flattened and pointed by the remains of the style ; seeds solitary, erect, rarely suspended.

History and Habitat. The Cursed Crowfoot is indigenous to Europe and North America ; with us it appears as if introduced. It grows in marshy tracts and wet ditches, and blossoms from June to August.

The general and medical history of the species is generic, they having been used indiscriminately, R. sceleratus, however, being considered the most poisonous, its juice possessing remarkable caustic power, quickly raising a blister wherever

* Litin for a little frog, referring to its habitat.

3-2

applied, and a dose of two drops sometimes excitino- fatal inflammation along the whole alimentary tract.

This genus was known to the ancient physicians as BpaTpa;^(0)' [Brati-acltiott). Hippocrates, Paukis ^gineta, and Dioscorides spoke of various species, the latter using them as external applications for the removal of psora, leprous nails, steoto- matous and other tumors, as well as fomentations to chilblains, and in toothache. Galen, Paulus, and the physicians of Arabia, all speak highly of the plants as powerful escharotics ; and the Bedouins use them as rubefacients.

Gerarde says: "There be divers sorts or kinds of these pernitious herbes comprehended under the name of Ranunculus or Crowfoote, whereof most are very dangerous to be taken into the body, and therefore they require a very exquisite moderation, with a most exact and due manner of tempering; not any of them are to be taken alone by themselves, because they are of a most violent force, and therefore have the great nede of correction. The knowledge of these plants is as necessarle to the phisition as of other herbes, to the end they may shun the same, as Scribonius Largus saith, and not take them ignorantly, or also if necessitie at any time require that they may use them, and that with some deliberation and special choice and with their proper correctives. ¥ov these dan- gerous simples are likewise many times of themselves beneficial and oftentimes profitable ; for some of them are not so dangerous but that they may in some sort and oftentimes in fit and due season profit and do good." In regard to the acrid properties of the plants, he further says : " Cunning beggars do use to stampe the leaves and lay it unto their legs and amies, which causeth such filthy ulcers as we daily see (among such wicked vagabondes), to moove the people the more to pittie."

Van Swieten, Tissot, and others mention a curious practice, formerly prevail- ing in several countries of Europe, of applying Ranunculus to the wrists and fingers for the cure of intermittent fevers. This practice we noted only a few days since, when called to see a child of a new-settled German family in our city; the little one's wrists were bound up in the leaves and branches of R. acris; it was suffering with an attack of lobar pneumonia.

In former practice the plants were used, in view of external stimulation, in rheumatism (especially sciatic), hip disease, hemicrania, and in local spasmodic and fi.xed pains ; in asthma, icterus, dysuria, and pneumonia. Withering, in speak- ing of R. flanimula, says : " It is an instantaneous emetic, as if Nature had furnished an antidote to poisons from among poisons of its own tribe ; and it is to be pre- ferred to almost any other vomit in promoting the instantaneous expulsion of deleterious substances from the stomach."

Many species of this genus are used as pot-herbs, as the process ot boiling throws off the volatile acrid principle and renders them inert, though some cases are reported where this happy result failed, and serious symptoms supervened. In Northern Persia the young tubers, leaves, stems, and blossoms of R. cdulis, Boiss, are brought into market and sold as a pot-herb ; the Swedish peasantry use R.Jicaria, Linn.; and the shepherds of Wallachia, R. scelcratus, Linn.-'

* Lewis Sturtevant, M.D., in Bot. Gaz., vii, 316.

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Ranunculus is among the articles dropped from the U. S. Ph. at the last revision.

PART USED AND PREPARATION.— The fresh herb, gathered when in fruit, but still green and untouched by frost, is chopped and pounded to a pulp and weighed. Then two parts by weight of alcohol are taken, the pulp thoroughly mixed with one-sixth part of it, and the rest of the alcohol added. After having stirred the whole well, it is poured into a well-stoppered bottle, and allowed to stand eight days in a dark, cool place. The tincture is then separated by straining and filtering. Thus prepared it has a clear reddish-orange color by transmitted light ; an acrid odor and taste ; and an acid reaction.

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS.— We consider here the genus as a whole, taking this species as a chemical type.

Anemonol, or Oil of Raniciiciilus. Mr. O. L. Erdmann* found this to be the acrid principle of this species, and extracted it as a golden-yellow volatile body, decomposing by age into anemoiiin and ancmonic acid, both of which are as described on pages 1-2 and 1-3, and

Anemoninic Acid. When boiled with an excess of baryta water, anemonin decomposes, forming, among other bodies, red flakes of anemoninate of barium (Ltiwig and Weidman). Prof Frehling, who afterward examined into the subject, says, " this acid cannot be formed from anemonin by simply assumption with water." "I"

PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. According to Basiner,+ the oil of Ranunculus acts, in warm-blooded animals, as an acrid narcotic, producing, in small doses, stupor and slow respiration ; in larger doses, also, paralysis of the posterior and anterior extremities, and, before death, convulsions ot the whole body. The acrid action is shown by a corrosive gastritis and by hypersemia of the kidneys, more particularly their cortical substance. Anemonin causes similar symptoms, but is followed by no convulsions, nor does it irritate sufficiently to corrode the organs, as in the oil.

Krapf states § that a small portion of a leaf or flower of R. sceleratus, or two drops of the juice, excited acute pain in the stomach, and a sense of inflammation of the throat ; when he chewed the most succulent leaves, the salivary glands were strongly stimulated ; his tongue was excoriated and cracked ; his teeth smarted, and his cornea became tender and bloody. ||

A man, at Bevay, France, swallowed a glassful of the juice, which had been kept lor some time; he was seized in four hours with violent colic and vomiting, and died the second day.^

* Am. JoJir. Phar., 1S59, p. 440.

t Drugs and Med. of N. A., i, 6S.

X Die Vergift mil Ranunkelol, Antiiioiiin, etc., in .•/«/. your. Pluir., 1882, 130.

\ Exp. de Nonnutl. Ramin. Ven. Qua/.

II Orfila, Tax. Gen., i, 754.

\ Jour, dc Chim. Mid., 1S36, 273.

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Ranunculus Repens, unr

N. ORD. RANUNCULACE.^. 4

Thbe.-RANUNCULE/E.

GENUS.— RANUNCULUS, LINN. SEX.- SYST.— POLYANDRI.'\ POLVGVNI.V.

RANUNCULUS REPENS.

CREEPIJVG BUTTERCUPS.

SYN. RANUNCULUS REPENS,