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TRANSACTIONS

OF THE

CONNECTICUT ACADEMY

ARTS AND SCIENCES. VOLUME I. NEW HAVEN:

PUBLISHED BY, THE ACADEMY.

PRINTED BY TUTTLE, MOREHOUSE & TAYLOR

1866 To 1871.

\ ele 7 ~ _ ; ) \ | 70 f t | { 2: é Ya C ; a

CON LENeseor VOL. I, PART 1.

PAGE Art. I1—A RecisTeER oF THE AvuRoRA Boreratis AT NEw

Haven, Conn., From Marcu, 1837, ro May, 1854. By

Epwarp C. Herrick, Liprarian oF YALE CoLiecs,-_-_-- 9 EXTRACTS FROM AN AURORAL REGISTER KEPT aT NEW

Haven, Conn., By Mr. Francis BRADLEY,..-..__--.__- 139

Arr. IL—Norices oF AURORAS EXTRACTED FROM THE METEOR- OLOGICAL JOURNAL or Rey. Ezra Strives, §.T.D., FORMERLY PRESIDENT OF YALE COLLEGE ; TO WHICH ARE ADDED, No- TICES OF A FEW OTHER AURORAS RECORDED BY OTHER OBSERVERS, AT Nrw Haven, CONN., COLLECTED AND ARRANGED BY Pror. Extas Loomts,

Art. II].—On Brekxker’s DicamMatTEep Text oF Homer. By Pins dn oils Be i oe ee ee ee ee 173

Art. 1V.—Own THE Mean TEMPERATURE, AND ON THE FLuctUu- ATIONS OF TEMPERATURE, AT NEw Haven, Conn., Lat. 41° 18’ N., Lone. 72° 55’ W. or GreEnwicu. By Pro- FEssors Ex1as Loomis anp H. A. Newron,._-_-__-- ._-- 194

ope

Seen is OF VOL. F, PART 2,

ArT. V.—NoTES*‘on THE RADIATA IN THE Museum oF YALE CoLLEGE, witH DEscRIPTIONS OF NEW GENERA AND SEBEtG) . bY WenOn As Hy ViRRILL,. ...---<-----=- 247

No. 1.—Derscriptions oF NEW STARFISHES FROM NEW ERAT AGN|() Eee eee ee On ye SS es Se ee 247

No, 2.—NotTEs oN THE EcHINODERMS OF PANAMA AND West Coast oF AMERICA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW niga AN SBNOUHG. = 92 22822. 242582252. 4. -- = 251

CONTENTS.

No. 3.—On THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE EcuINoDERMS OF THE West Coast OF AMERICA,.. --

CoMPARISON OF THE TRopIcAL EcHINODERM—F AUN oF THE East anD West Coasts oF AMERICA,

No. 4.—NoricE oF THE CorALs AND ECHINODERMS COL- LECTED BY Pror. C. F, Hartt, ar THE ABROLHOS REEFs, Province oF Banta, Braz, 1867,

No. 5.—Noricr oF A CoLLecTION OF ECHINODERMS FROM La Paz, Lower Catirornia, wirh DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEW GENUS,

SuPpPLEMENTARY NoTE ON ECHINODERMS OF THE WEST Coast oF AMERICA,

No. 6.—REVIEW OF THE CoRALS AND POLYPS OF THE West Coast oF AMERICA,

No. 7.—On THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE Portyrs oF THR West Coast OF AMERICA,

No. 8.—AppirTionaL OBSERVATIONS ON ECHINODERMS, CHIEFLY FROM THE Pacrric Coast oF AMERICA,

No. 9.—On THE EcurInopERM—FAUNA OF THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA AND Caper St. Lucas,

PAGE

351

568

593

ADVERTISEMENT.

In the year 1799, several gentlemen in New Haven formed a So- ciety for the promotion of useful knowledge, under the name of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences; and in October of the same year, obtained from the Legislature of the State, an Act of Incorporation. Under this charter, a copy of which is subjoined, the Academy was fully organized, and has continued in active ope- ration to the present time.

One important object proposed by the founders of the Association, was to collect materials for a statistical account of the State of Con- necticut. This object was partially accomplished. A large amount of statistical facts were collected and a portion of them were pub- lished.

The main design of the Association was, however, the general pro- motion of the arts and sciences; and in compliance with this design, several papers on philosophical subjects were from time to time pre- sented to the Academy, and some of them were selected for publi- cation. In the year 1810 was issued Part I of an octavo volume, embracing seventeen short memoirs in various departments of science ; and in subsequent years, eight other memoirs were added, making together an octavo volume of 412 pages. Besides this, the Academy also published some statistics of the State of Connecticut.

After the establishment of the American Journal of Science in 1819, by Professor Benjamin Silliman, the Academy judged it inex- pedient to continue the publication of memoirs in a separate form, and henceforth such papers as were read at its meetings, and were considered worthy of publication, were given to the public through

the medium of the Journal of Science. This practice has continued

4

to the present time. But within the last few years it was found that the Academy had at its command a considerable amount of scientific materials, which were thought worthy of publication, and which did not seem suited to the pages of an ordinary scientific journal. It was therefore proposed that the Academy should resume its practice of independent publication, and through the liberal subscriptions of several gentlemen of New Haven, the means of doing this have been provided. The Part now issued forms but half of a volume which it is intended before long to complete; a portion of the materials for

the remainder of the volume being nearly ready for the printer.

AN ACT

To INCORPORATE THE CoNNEcTICUT ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES.

Whereas literary Societies have been found to promote, diffuse and preserve the knowledge of those Arts and Sciences which are the support of Agriculture, Manufactures and Commerce, and to advance the dignity, virtue and happiness of a people: Therefore,

Be it enacted by the Governor and Council, and House of Representatives, in General Court assembled, That Timothy Dwight, James Dana, Zephaniah Swift, John Allen, David Daggett, Jesse Root, Jolin C. Smith, Isaac Beers, Nathaniel Smith, Elijah Munson, Josiah Meigs, Enoch Perkins, Jeremiah Atwater, 4th, John Barker, Elias Shipman, Noah Webster, Jr., Simeon Baldwin, Elizur Goodrich, Obadiah Hotchkiss, Jr., Timothy Pitkin, Jr., Theodore Dwight, Abraham Bishop, Ashur Miller, Stephen Titus Hosmer, James Hillhouse, Jeremiah Wadsworth, Pierpont Edwards, Isaac Mills, Eli Whitney, John Davenport, John Bowden, Bela Hubbard, Jonathan O. Moseley, Jonathan Sturgiss, Elizuar Wright, Jeremiah Townsend, Jr., Jared Mansfield, John Marsh, Nathan Perkins, Levi Hart, John Treadwell, Oliver Ellsworth, Jonathan Trumbull, and Eneas Munson, and their associates, be, and they hereby are formed into, constituted and made a body politic and corporate, by the name of The Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences,” and by that name, they and their successors shall and may have per- petual succession; shal] be capable of sueing and being sued, pleading and being impleaded, in all suits, of what nature soever; may have a Common Seal, and may alter the same at pleasure; and may also purchase, receive, hold and convey any estate, real or personal; provided that the annual income of such estate shall not exceed one thousand dollars.

2d. And be it further enacted, That the said Academy may, from time to time, elect a President and a Keeper of Records, which Keeper of Records shall be sworn to a faithful discharge of his trust; and such other officers as they may find nec- essary or convenient; may elect additional members, provided the whole number of members resident in this State shall never exceed two hundred, nor ever be less than forty. And the said Academy may make by-laws respecting the num- ber, qualifications and duties of their Officers; the mode of election and admis- sion of members; the time, place and manner of holding their meetings; and the number necessary to make a quorum, and all other by-laws which they may deem necessary for the due regulation of said Society, not repugnant to the laws of the State or of the United States; and may annex reasonable pecuniary fines and penalties, for the breach of such by-laws, not exceeding ten dollars for one offence.

3d. And be it further enacted, That the first meeting of said Academy be held, at the State House in New Haven, on the fourth Tuesday of instant October.

4th. And be it further enacted, That this Act, or any part thereof, if found inad- equate or inconvenient, may be altered, amended, or repealed.

Passed on the second Thursday of October, A.D. 1799.

OFFICERS OF THE ACADEMY.

President, CHESTER 8. LYMAN.

Vice President, ELIAS LOOMIS.

Recording Secretary, HUBERT A. NEWTON.

Librarian, ADDISON VAN NAME,

Treasurer, HENRY C, KINGSLEY.

Corresponding Secretaries, WILLIAM A. NORTON, BENJAMIN SILLIMAN, LEONARD J. SANFORD, HUBERT A. NEWTON, ex officio.

Councillors,

ALEXANDER C. TWINING, ELI W. BLAKE,

BENJAMIN SILLIMAN,

HUBERT A. NEWTON.

Committee of Publication,

ELIAS LOOMIS, JAMES D, DANA,

CHESTER 8. LYMAN, HUBERT A. NEWTON,

GEORGE J. BRUSH.

WILLIAM D. WHITNEY,

WILLIAM D. WHITNEY, DANIEL C. GILMAN,

Introductory notice to Herrich’s Auroral Register by Professors Elias Loomis and H. A. Newton, to whom the editing of Mr. Herrick’s observations was committed.

Epwarp ©. Herrick was born in New Haven, Feb. 24th, 1811. His advantages for early education were good, and they were faith- fully improved; but a chronic inflammation of the eye-lids prevented his receiving a collegiate education, which he always lamented as a disadvantage.

At the age of about sixteen he became a clerk in a book-store, and he continued in the book-business, either as clerk or proprietor, for about a dozen years. In 1843, he was appointed Librarian of Yale College, and in 1852 Treasurer of the College, which office he retained until his death, which occurred June 11, 1862.

Although Mr. Herrick was by profession a business man, he had an ardent love for science, and devoted nearly all the time which he could call his own, to the study of various subjects, but particularly Natural History and Meteorology. As early as 1832, he became deeply interested in certain questions connected with Natural His- tory, which he prosecuted for many years with untiring zeal.

The remarkable display of meteors, Novy. 13, 1833, stimulated his curiosity, and from that time to the very close of his life, he was one of the most indefatigable observers of meteors, whether in America or in Europe.

In 1826, when only fifteen years of age, he commenced a meteoro- logical journal, making observations with the greatest regularity four times a day, and continued it without interruption for five years. It was subsequently resumed, and continued for several years longer, though with various interruptions. In this journal, as early as 1827, he made a most scrupulous record of every aurora which he observed. The remarkable aurora of Noy. 17, 1835, combined with those of April 22, 1836, and Jan. 25, 1837, excited a deep interest among sci- entific men in New Haven, and stimulated Mr. Herrick to undertake that careful record of auroras which is herewith published.

In the spring of 1837, Dr. William Tully, Professor of Materia Medica in Yale College, had arranged to spend a few weeks at Cas. tleton, Vt., a place about 125 miles north of New Haven; and Mr. Herrick made an agreement with him to observe in concert for auro- ras. It was decided to make a record every evening, stating whether the sky was clear or overcast; and whenever an aurora was seen, to describe its peculiarities with minuteness. Dr. Tully’s record ex- tended from March 8th to June 5th, and again from Aug. 10th to Oct. 27th. The result of these comparisons confirmed Mr. Herrick in his opinion of the utility of such a record, and henceforth his au- roral register was continued for seventeen years, with only a few un-

8

avoidable interruptions. The most important of these interruptions was one of seven months, from March to Sept., 1851, at which time Mr. Herrick was attacked by a fit of sickness so severe that it was not supposed that he could survive it. After this sickness he never fully recovered his former physical vigor, and this consideration com- pelled him to abandon his systematic register in 1854.

During these seventeen years, it was Mr. Herrick’s invariable cus- tom to go out into the open air at several different times each evening, in order to see whether any traces of auroral light could be detected, and the result of his observations was entered in his register. When- ever an aurora was seen, a brief description of its principal features was given. He however regarded it as of almost equal importance that the record should show upon what nights zo auroral light could be seen; also how far observation was interfered with by moon-light, clouds, haze, ete., and on what nights observation was from any cause rendered impossible.

In the printed register, we have generally allowed but one line to each evening. Whenever the record required a larger space, the re- mainder is given at the bottom of the page, and this addition is indi- cated by an asterisk inserted in the corresponding line.

Whenever any auroral light was seen or suspected, we have not felt at liberty to abridge the record, since Mr. Herrick was scrupu- lously careful in his choice of expressions; but when no light was suspected, we have abridged his descriptions of the state of the sky, so as to reduce them to the limits of a single printed line.

The numbers in parentheses at the ends of the lines are intended to indicate the auroras actually seen at New Haven. No fixed rules could be followed as regards including or excluding suspected auro- ras. Those cases which have been included correspond, however, with but few exceptions, to Mr. Herrick’s own judgment as indicated in a numerical summary of all his observations, which he furnished to one of the committee a few years before his death.

The following abbreviations are used for words of frequent occur- rence. Entries made in the Register by Mr. Herrick upon the author- ity of Mr. Francis Bradley are marked (F. B.).

A.B., Aurora Borealis. |dif., difficult. obse., obscured.

ac’t, account. al, doubtful. oe’l, occasional.

aft., after., afterwards. d’s, doubtless. oc’y, occasionally.

alt., altitude. ev’g, evening. pos., possible, possibly. al’t, almost. hor., horizon. p., prob., probable, probably. betw’n, between. imp., impos., impossible. Py, partly.

cd, could. impr., improbable. r’y, rainy.

cert., certain, certainly. |interf., interferes. sl’t, slight.

cl’ded, clouded. ts light. sl’tly, slightly.

cl’ds, clouds. Vtnings, lightnings. susp., suspected.

cl’ss, cloudless. m’g, morn., morning. twil’t, twilight.

el’r, clear. m’y, mostly. unc., uncertain.

el’y, cloudy. n't, night. Vis., visible.

det., determine. n’y, nearly. wh’y, wholly.

dg, during. obs., observation.

A REGISTER

OF THE

UR, OL Rea OB Ovks Hed L-LS AT NEW HAVEN, CONN., FROM MARCH, 1837, TO DECEMBER, 1853.

BY EDWARD C. HERRICK,

LIBRARIAN OF YALE COLLEGE.

1 s

Mar 29 Clear: a plain A.B. from end of twil’t: not very conspicuous. 30| Clear. 31| Raining moderately at 10". Began to rain at 12™.

Apr. 1/Clear. No A.B. seen. 2) Pair. Nio A.B. 3|Clear. No A.B. 4/Ov’t at 6%. Clouds breaking up at 10". No A.B. seen. 5|Ov’t, but breaking up at 6". Clear at 10... No A.B. 6|Clear. A.B. from end of twilight. 7\Ov’t: began to rain about 8". Obs. impos.

8|Ov’t at 10". Obs. impos.

9| Cloudy. 10|Clear. No A.B. seen. 11|Clear. No A.B. 12|Clear. No A.B. 13| Nearly ov’t at 105. Obs. impos., or nearly. 14| Broken clouds. No A.B. seen, but obs. impaired. 15| Nearly clear. No A.B. seen. 16|Ov’t. Occasional rain. 17| Nearly clear. No A.B. seen. 18| Broken cumuli. No A.B. seen. 19|Partly ov’t. Clouds broken. 20\/Ov’t. A little rain during the evening. 21|Nearly clear. Red aurora, not very splendid. 22)Clear at 10". No A.B. 23|Raining moderately. A few flakes of snow about 7°. 24| Hazy. 25|Mostly ov’t at 75. Thinly ov’t at 10%. Hazy. 26|Ov’t. 27|Mostly clear, hazy. 28|Clear. Hazy. 29|Clear. Hazy in horizon. 30| Began to rain about 7°.

2

10 Herrick’s Auroral Register.

1837. May 1|Exceedingly clear. No A.B. to 10°. 2)Cloudy in N. A.B. could not well have been seen to 10". 3, Much ov’t. No A.B. visible to 10", and prob. none in reality. 4/Clear until 8": after that so much obse. that A.B. could not be obs. 5|Raining. Impos. to observe A.B. to 10". 6| Mostly ov’t. A.B. seen. (4) 7|Clear, and no A.B. to 1044. 8/Clear. No A.B. to 10}. 9|No A.B. could have been seen on account of clouds. 10|Clear. No A.B. to 103. ® 11|Nearly clear. Moonlight. No A.B. to 11". 12|Ov’t. Clouds prevented obs. on A.B. to 11%. 13|Ov’t. Misty. No obs. could be made to 10". 14|Ov’t. No obs. e’d be made after 84" to 10". None visible before 83". 15|Ovwt. No obs. could be made to 10", and prob. to sunrise. 16|;Ov’t. No obs. could be made. 17|Clear. Moonlight. No A.B. to 10%. 18|Ov’t. No obs. could be made to 10". 19|Rain. No obs. could be made to 10", 20)/Clear. Moonlight. No. A.B. 21)Clear. No A.B. to 10". Apparently faint zod. light. 22/Ov’t: rain. No obs. could be made. 23|/Clear, No A.B. to 10". Zod. light very faint, if visible at all. 24; Rain. No obs. could be made. 25 Rain. No obs. could be made. 26|Clear. No A.B. to 10". Zod. light appears to have departed. 27|Clear. No A.B. to.10*. 28/Clear. No A.B. to 93". 29/Clear. No A.B. to 10". 30/Clouding in N. at 7%. Ov’t at 10". No obs. could be made. 31|Clear. Low cl’dsin N. No A.B. (or pos. very faint glimmer) to 10". June 1)Hazy: clouds in N. No A.B. to 10", orif any, scarcely perceptible. 2|Mostly clear. A very good aurora. 3| Mostly ov’t.* (6) 4/Ov’t after 8". Clouds prevented obs. on A.B. 5|Clear, hazy. No A.B. to 10°. 6|Clear. No A.B. to 10°. 7/Ov’t, rain. Obs. impos. to 10°. 8)}Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", 9| Mostly ov’t. No A.B. to 10", Moon and cl’ds interfere somewhat. 10 Ov’t. Obs. impos. 11/Clear. No A.B. to 10". 12)Ov’t, rain. Obs. impos. to 105, 13|Thinly ov’t. No A.B. to 105. 14,Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 104". 15|Ov’t. Clouds dispersing at 10". No. A.B. visible. 16|Ov’t, slight rain, Obs. impos. 17, Owt. Obs. impos. to 10", 18|Clear. No A.B. to 10%. 19|Ov’t. Obs. impos, all night. 20/Clear. No A.B. to 103".

June 3d.—Flashes of lightning nearly incessant from N.W. to N.E. to 9h 30m, and perhaps longer. A.B. could not therefore be observed. [A.B. seen Sunday between 1h and 2h a. M. (4th) by Mrs. Prof. Goodrich. |

Herrick’s Auroral Register. 11

1837. ; ; June 21/Ov’t. Obs. impos. all night. 22|Cloudless, but hazy. No A.B. to 10". 23) Dimly clear in zenith, very dusky in horizon. No A.B. to 10%. 24| Mostly ov’t. Clouds almost prevented obs. : none to 10" prob.* (7) 25|Smoky: too hazy to permit obs. to 10", and prob. all night. 26|Too hazy for obs. all night: a few stars in zenith visible. 27|Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 104%. 28| Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10°. 29/Ov’t. Obs. impos. 30|Clear. No A.B. to 103"; and none at 2 a.m. of Ist July. July 1/Clear. Splendid A.B. (8 2/Clear. A.B. moderate. 9 3| Mostly clear at 10". Showersin theev’g. A.B. very moderate. (10 4|Thinly ov’t. Obs. uncertain. Apparently none to 10". 5 6 7

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 103%. [None at 10}. Mostly ov’t. N.sky much clouded till 11", some light through ¢l’ds. Mostly ov’t. Obs. uncertain to 10".

8/Clear. No A.B. to 11". Moonlight.

9\Clear. No A.B. to 1044.

10/Clear. No A.B. to 105.

11/Ov’t. No certain obs. could be made up to 11".*

12/Clear. No A.B. to 115. [and moonlight. 13|Clear. No A.B. to 11": obs. uncertain on account of clouds in N. 14/Ovy’t. Obs. impos. to 112.

15|Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 107,

16/Clear. No A.B. to 10%.

17|Clear. No A.B. except a segment of a single arch. (11) 18|Clear. No A.B. to 103*.*

19|Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10".

20|Clear, with slight haze. No A.B. to 10$.

21)Clear. No A.B. to 115.

22)Clear. No A.B. to 10".

23| Mostly ov’t at 6". Mostly clear at 10". No A.B. to 10$". 24|Ov’t at 6". Mostly clear at 10". No A.B. to 10".

25| Mostly ov’t at 6". Clear at 10". No A.B. to 104°.

26/Clear. No A.B. to 10}.

27|Mostly clear. No A.B. to 103".

28\Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10",

29) A.B. seen from 9" to 10, when sky became ov’t.

30|Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 11".* (12) 31|Clear. No A.B. (or possibly very faint light) to 103". Aug. 1)Clear. No A.B. to 103", or possibly a faint light.* (13) 2)Mostly ov’t. No A.B. 3/Clear. A.B. visible from a little before 9".* (14)

4|Clear. No A.B. to 10", or possibly a faint dawn. 5|Clear. No A.B. to 10".

6|Clear. No A.B. to 10". Moon.

7\Raining. Obs. impos. to 10"

June Mth.—[Aurora after 10b 30m; a diffuse light only seen; watched but a few minutes, and therefore a very imperfect observation (Mrs. Mary Foster’s). I did not see it.]

July 11th.—Some uncertain indications of A.B. through the clouds.

July 18th.—[{Mr. Chas. Rich saw at 8h what he thinks a faint streamer. ]

July 30th.—According to Dr. Hooker there was A.B. with waves, 3 A.M. of 31st.

Aug. Ist—[Mr. Wm. Daggett says he saw an A.B. last night. ] ,

Aug. 3d.—Principally diffuse white light; few streamers. Watched till 11h. Returned after midnight, with more display ; loftier streamers: seen by Mr. Wm. Daggett.

12 Flerrick’s Auroral Register.

Aug. 8|Ov’t. Rain. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night. 9|Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10". Moon.

10, Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 105. [parently none to 11". 11 Clouds breaking. Obs. uncertain on ac’t of clouds and moon: ap- 12 Mostly ov’t. Obs. nearly impos. to 103". Moon. Prob. no A.B. 13 Partly clear. Obs. rather uncertain on ac’t of clouds and moon.* 14 Mostly ov’t. Obs. nearly impos. ; apparently none to 11%,

15 Ov’t from 83". Obs. impos. on account of clouds. Moon.

16 Mostly ov’t. Obs. nearly impos.; apparently none to 10", Moon. 17 Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and prob. all night. [none to 103”. 18 ‘Clearing off: obs, rather une. on ae’t of cl’ds and moon : apparently 19 Mostly ov’t. Obs. uncertain; probably none to 10}.

20 Mostly ov’t. Obs. nearly impos. ; none discov arable,

21/Clear. No A.B. to 10%.

22|Clear. No A.B. to 115.

23 Clear at 6". Ov’tat10": sooncl’r. No A.B. to 103". Prob. a frost. 24 Mostly clear, No A.B. to 10%,

>

25 Mostly clear. A.B. seen from 8" 40™, (15) 26/Ov’t. Rain. Obs. impos.

27|Clear. A.B. seen. Rank, No. 5. in 28/Clear. A.B. seen. Rank, No. 7. 17

29 9 Mostly ov’'t. No A.B. seen. Cloudy after 8".* 30) ‘Thickly ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10",* 31| Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10", Probably a frost. Sept. 1 Mostly clear. No A.B. seen to 11", Probably a frost. 2 Clear except faint cirriin N. No A.B. seen to 10, 3/Clear. No A.B. seen to 10%. 4|Clear. No A.B. to 10". 5|Mostly ov’t. Clear at 9". No A.B. to 10". Moon. 6 Mostly ov’t, thinly. No A.B. to 10". 7, Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

8|Ov’t after 912. No A.B. to that time.

9|Clear. No ‘AB. to 10%,

10 Mostly clear to 83". No A.B. to that time, and prob. none to 11". 11|Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 11°.

12|Clear. Very slight A.B. if any. I saw none to 11".*

13|Clear. No A.B. to 10". | 14|Mostly ov’t, with cirri, No A.B. to 11". | 15 Obs. rather uncertain on ac’t of cl’ds and moon; prob. nonetol0" | 16|Clear. No A.B. to 10".

17| Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10". Moon. 18|Clear. No A.B. to 10". Moon. 19|Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

20 Clear. A.B. not very conspicuous. 18) 1 Aes 19 22)Partly owt. Obs. doubtful on account of clouds.* 20 23|\Clear. A.B. 21

Aug. 13th.—Apparently none to 10h 30m. Mr, Chas. Rich thinks he saw auroral light through the clouds about 11h.

Aug. 29th.—Went to Southampton. Mr. A. B. Haile keeps record during my absence (till Sept. “4th, inclusive). I saw a faint A.B. during the evening at Southampton, 1 f

Aug. 30th.—I thought I saw an A.B. through the clouds at Southampton, but it is some- what uncertain.

Sept. 12th.—Mr. Haile thinks he saw a single streamer, but is uncertain.

Sept. 22d.—Apparently a faint illumination, but no streamers seen. Probably was a slight aurora.

Herrick’s Auroral Register. 13

1837. Sept. 24/Clear. A.B. (22)

25} Half ov’t at 65. Mostly clear at 10°. Obs. une. on ac’t of clouds.* 26|Cloudy till 9", clear till 10%. A very faint A.B. detected.

27\Ov’t. Obs, impos. to 10*, and probably all night.

28)Oy’t. Obs, impos. to 11%, and probably all night.*

29/Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

30)Rain. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

Clear. No A.B. to 94*.*

2/Cl’y: no A.B. to 108. Obs. somewhat uncertain on ac’t of cl’ds. 3 Mostly clear. No A.B. to 103". None at 4" 20™ next a. mM. 4\Clear. No A.B. to 10".

5|Rain. Obs. impos. to 103", and probably all night.

Clear. A.B. seen from 6? 36™ to 10° 20™ and probably later.* (23) Obs. unc. from cl’ds and moon; p. none to 10": cert. none over 3. Clear. No A.B. visible to 10%. Moon.

No A.B. seen to 9". Obs. slightly uncertain from clouds and moon. 10 Thinly ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10".*

11|M’y ov’t. Obs. impos. to 9%. Mr. C. Rich thinks he saw a faint light. 12/ Obs. almost impos. to 10" on account of clouds and moon.* 13/Clear. No A.B. to 10", but uncertain on account of moon. [moon. 14|M’y ov’t: no A.B. seen: p. none to 11”: som’t unc. from cl’ds and 15|Oy’t. Obs. impos. to 103"

Oct.

_

oOo ost o

16|Clear. No A.B. to 10°. [of clouds and moon, 17| Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10", but obs. very uncertain on account 18|Clear.* (24)

19/Ovy’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night. 20|No A.B. to 9".

21/Clear. A.B. seen from 64° to 10", and probably later.* (25) 22|/Clear. A.B. seen from 6" 10". (26) 23\Clear. No A.B. to 103"; thick fog from 10°. [ov’t.

24| Obs. to 9$" une. on ac’t of cl’ds; cert. none over 2 to 93": after that 25|Entirely ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all nate 26;Ov’t. Rain. Obs. impos. to 10°, ‘and probably all night.

27| No A.B. to 10%, but slightly unc. on ac’t of clouds: none over 3 cert. 28) Thinly ov’t vhazy: no A.B. to 10", obs. unc. from cl’ds: none over 3. 29| Mostly clear: no A.B. to 10", but sky most of evening slightly obse.* 30| Ov’t: obs. after 8" impos., and previous to that nearly sO; none seen. 31| Clear.

Noy. 1|Clear. A.B. seen; a few transient streamers, early in evening. (27) 2|Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10", or possibly a very faint light. 3\Clear. No A.B. to 9"; moon slightly interfered: none at a. M. 4)Obs. une. from cl’ds and moon; none under 6 or 7 c’d beseen: p. none.

Sept. 25th.—I think there is a faint light, before 10h.

Sept. 28th.—Mr. D. E. Sykes tells me that at Boston, Mass., two auroral arches were seen, about 8h; they were concentric, and about 20° high. Possibly this may belong to the previous, or the succeeding Thursday.

Oct. 1Ist.—A faint light in the N. like the dawn at 4h 4. m. (of 2d) extending up or 2°; no streamers. Zod. light distinct, extending to the nebula in Cancer, and perhaps beyond it.

Oct. 6th.—Faint streamers at 6h 36m, ‘and more at 10h20m, Between these dates only a general diffusion of light in the N.

Oct. 10th.—At 4h a.m. of 11th there seemed to be a very faint light in the N., but Iam un- certain whether there it is unusual.

Oct. 12th.—Needale slightly disturbed, but no A.B. seen.

Oct. 18th.—A faint A.B. low in N. horizon (much of the time obscured by clouds), to 8h 30m, when moon interfered. No A.B. visible after this to 10h.

Oct. 2ist.—A diffuse fluctuating light. No streamers. Aurora seen Sunday morning, by Dr. N. B. Ives, between 3h and 4h; numerous bright short streamers.

Oct. 29th.—At 10h thought there was a faint N. light, but not very sure.

14 Herrick’s Auroral Register.

5) Half clear: clouds and moon interfered.* 6|Cl’r early inev’g; moon: no A.B. seen: after 7$" ov’t and obs. imp. 7{Clear. No A.B. to 10"; moon present; no A.B. from 4 a. mM. of 8th. 8/Clear. No A.B. to 10%.

9}Ov’t most of evening, so that obs. was impos. to 10" and d’s all n’t 10| M’y cl’r: no A.B. to 10°; sI’tly une. from cl’ds, moon; no A.B. susp. 11/Ov’t and misty. Rain about 7%. Obs. impos.

12|Clear. A.B. (28) 13] My ov’t: obs. n’y impos. from cl’ds and moon: none over 7 or 8. 14|Sky entirely ov’t till 7" and mostly so until 10" 40".* (29)

15|Clear. No A.B. to 103". Moon present. 16|Clear. No A.B. to 74, when moon rose, and none seen after to 10". 7| Clear.* (30 18| Mostly clear. A.B. from twilight to 10" at least.* an 19| Mostly ov’t at 6". (No later record.) 20|M’y c’r: no A.B. to 10", or pos. an exceedingly faint reflection.*(32) 21|Hazy. No A.B. to 10°. 22)Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10°. 23|Clear. No A.B. to 10°. - 24/Ov’t. Snowing. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night. 25|Mostly ov’t at 6": Clear at 10". No "A.B. to 10", 26|Clear. No A.B. to 9". 27\Clear. No A.B. to 10, 28|/Clear. No A.B. to 10". 29| Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10%.

30/Clear. Slightly hazy. No A.B. to 10".* (33) Dec. 1|Clear. Low fog. Brilliant A.B.* (34)

2)Owt. Misty. Obs. impos. to 10".

3) Ov’t most of ev’g to 10" and prob. all n’t: obs. n’y impos. : none seen. 4| Mostly clear at 10". No A.B. at 10". Most of the evening cloudy. 5)Ov’t. A.B. seen. (35) 6\Clear, No A.B. to 10°, ( 8 9

Mostly ov’t. No A.B. to 9", after which clouds interfere.*

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

9/Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and doubtless all night.

10}Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and doubtless all night.

11|Clear. No A.B. to 9% Full moon.

12|Clear. No A.B. to 9%. [fore uncertain. 13|Half clear at 6". No A.B. seen to 10"; cloudy and moonlight, there- 14|Clear. No A.B. to 105,

15|Clear. No A.B. to 10%. Moon.

16|Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and doubtless all night.

Noy. 5th.—A great coronal aurora about 11h. I did not see it. Seen early in the evening at Norfolk, Conn., by Mr. R. Gaylord, but overlooked here.

Nov. 14th.—It was then clearing r apidly. Magnificent rose-red auroral light covering the en- tire hemisphere; brightest about ‘6h m. t. Needle exceedingly disturbed. [See Dec. 29th, 1842. ]

Nov. 17th.—Slight “A.B. to 8h or until moon rose; after which it could be seen.

Nov. 18th.—I saw no streamers; but early much diffuse reddish light ; after, a distinct arch, with vertex about high and dark segment beneath, all fluctuating and ever changing ; loud roar of waves (pr obably those of the Atlantic) distinctly audible.

Nov. 20th.—Mr. J. H. Dulles and Mr. J. D. Whitney report a single streamer seen by them about 11h 50m,

Noy. 80th.—An aurora is reported to me which must have been considerable, but much obscured by clouds. I was in the house most of the evening.

Dec. 5th.—A few red streamers in N.E. about 5h 45m reaching to zenith, not much seen after; evening, especially latter part, very unfavorable. I did not see it at all.

Dec. 7th.—Yet a faint one suspected, but uncertain on account of moon.

Ferrick’s Auroral Register. 15 1837.

Dec. 17;Ov’t and raining all night. Obs. impos. [tain on ac’t of cl’ds. 18 Clear at 10". No A.B. to 10". Some auroral light susp., but uncer- 19|Ov’t at 6": clear at 10". No A.B. to 10°. 20|Clear. No A.B. to 10". 21\/No A.B. all night, yet shghtly uncertain on account of cloudiness. 22|Clear. No A.B. visible. 23/Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and doubtless all night. 24\/Clear. No A.B. to 10", nor from to 65 a.m. of 25th. 25|Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10".

26 Ov’t. No A.B. to 10", or possibly a very faint light. 27 Mostly ov’t. No A.B. seen, but obs. nearly impos. to 10",

28\Clear. A.B. scarcely detected before 8}". (36) 29 Partly clear. Obs. uncertain; after 10" m’y cl’rand no A.B. visible. 30 Clear. A.B. faint; I saw no streamers. (37)

31|Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10°.

1838.

Jan. 1|Clear. No A.B. to 10%. 2 Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10". 3 Mostly clear. No A.B. visible, but obs. rather imperfect. 4 Obs. impos. most of ev’g and n’t on ac’t of c’ds: no A.B. seen or susp. 5\Clear. A.B. seen; not till 9" to 10%.* (38) 6|Clear. No A.B. to 10°. 7, Very wet fog during ev’g. No A.B. seen; obs. nearly impos. to 10". 8 Clear. No A.B. to 10°. 9)Ovw’t. Raining. Obs. impos. to 10°,

10|Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

11/Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

12|Clear. No A.B. to 10.

13|Clear. No A.B. to 105.

14/Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

15|Clear.* (39) 16| Mostly clear at 6": mostly ov’t at 10".* (40) 17|Clear.*

18 Fog. Obs. impos. to 10", and doubtless all night.

19|Clear. No A.B. to 10".*

20/Clear. No A.B. to 10°,

21 Obs. nearly impos. on account of cloudiness. None suspected.

22 Many cirrous clouds: fair. No A.B. to 10", and prob. all night. 23/Ov’t. Obs. doubtful on account of clouds. None suspected.*

24) Mostly clear. A.B. seen.* (41) 25/Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

26|Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

27|Driving storm. Obs. impos. all night.

28\Ov’t at 6". Clear, in whole or in part, later.* (42)

Jan. 5th.—Many red patches and some white streamers; greatest altitude about 50°. Bright moon.

Jan. 15th.—A very faint light in the N. between 9h and 10h, but moon soon rose and obscured it.

Jan. 16th.— No A.B. during eveuing up to 9h 30m, when it became cloudy. Between 10h and 11h, through the broken clouds, I saw unusual light. I presume there was an aurora. [A decided aurora at 4 A.M. I did not see it. ]

Jan. 17th.—No A.B. to 10h, yet a very faint light appeared to lie low in the N. about I1h, Uncertain. ;

Jan. 19th.—At one time I suspected there was a very faint light, but I am uncertain.

Jan. 23d.—I have since heard that a lady saw, about 10h, through breaks in the clouds, an auroral corona. Needle not inspected.

pete gnu Bright low arch; red stains in N.W.; streamers, none higher than 40°. Rank

about No. 5.

Jan. 28th.—A.B. seen, chiefly between 9b and 10h; streamers about 40° high. Rank about

No.6. None visible at 4 4.m. of 29th. Seen at Buffalo, N. Y

16

Ferrick’s Auroral Register.

1838. Jan. 29|/Clear. No A.B. seen to 10".

30 yl Feb. 1

Clear. No A.B. to 10". Clear. No A.B. to 10°. M’y ov’t. Obs. uncertain on ac’t of cl’ds and moon: none detected.

2\Clear. No A.B: to 10°,

28 March 1

10 Hal 12 13 14 15 16 17

Ov’t, snowing at 6": scattered clouds at 10°. No A.B. to 10".* (43) Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 103".

Clear at 6": mostly ov’t at 10", Obs. nearly impos. to 11..* Mostly ov’t. Obs. impos. to 11".

Half clear. No A.B. to 10%. [Mr. A. B. Haile.) Ov’t. Obs, impos. to 10": (cl’r after 112; no A.B. according to

») Ov’t. No A.B. early in evening; afterwards obs. impos. to 10".

Raining. Obs. impos. to 10". se

Clear. No A.B.

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10".

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", except a few minutes at 9"; no A.B then.* Clear. No A.B.

A.B. noticed first about 10"; seen also at 12" and after.* (44) Clear. No A.B. to 10%.

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Clear. Splendid A.B. (45

Clear. A slight illumination in the N., seen by Mr. C. Rich. tie) M’y ov’t: obs. n’y impos. on ac’t of cl’ds and haze: none seen to 10". Clear. No A.B. to 10°,

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Clear. A very faint light in N. to 10", prob. a distant A.B. (47) No A.B. at 10", and obs. before nearly impos.: no A.B, at 4" (28th). Clear. No A.B. to 10%. Moon in the way.*

Clear. No A.B. to 10".

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Ov’t; foggy. Obs. impos. to 11".

Ov’t. Obs. nearly impos. all the evening to 10". None suspected. Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

Ov’t and snowing. Obs. impos. to 10".

Ov’t. Obs. nearly impos. during the evening.

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Clear. No A.B. to 9".

Clear. No A.B. to 10%.

Clear. No A.B. to 1134.

Mostly clear, hazy. No A.B, to 94°.

Clear at 6", Clear in FE. at 10"; cloudy in W. Slight A.B.* (48) Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

Ov’t. Snowing. Obs. impos.

Feb. 3d.—A.B. seen between 5 and 6 A.M. (4th); red colors: (Mr. A. R. Street.)

Feb. 8th.— Some unusual light suspected, but it is very uncertain.

Feb. 16th—Mr. J. Huntington thinks he saw A.B. at 11h.

Feb. 18th.—A small display, but few streamers.

Feb. 28th.—Query. A red aurora at 4h to 5h a.m. of March Ist ?

March 15th.—Not discoverable until about 9h, Up to 10h, there was but little action. Not

over No. 2.

Watched only until 10b,

1838. Mar. 18

19

31 April 1

ho

May

Fervich’s Auroral Register. 1%

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

|\Mostly clear at 6". Mostly ov’t at 10".* (49)

Mostly clear, slightly hazy. No A.B. to 10". Obs. uncertain. Hazy: no A.B. all might; hazy from 3"; mod. A.B. ¢’d not be seen. Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

Ov’t. Misty. Obs. impos. to 112, and doubtless all night. Mostly ov’t at 6%, Clear at 10". No A.B. to 10".

Fair. No A.B. to 9°.

iClear. No A.B. to 10}.

Snowing slightly. Obs. impos. to 10", and doubtless all night. Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10".

Ov’t.: obs. impos. most of ev’g; cl’ra short time at 8"; no A.B. seen. Clear. No A.B. to 10". Moon interferes.

Clear. No A.B. to 10°.

Clear. No A.B. to 9°.

Clear. No A.B.

Ov’t, with thick haze. Obs. nearly impos. to 10°.

No A.B. seen to 93", but obs. very une. on ac’t of clouds and moon. Mostly clear. No A.B. to 10%.

Dense haze. Obs. impos. to 10", and probably all night.

Clear at 6". No A.B. to 10°.

Rain storm during evening. Obs. impos.

No A.B. to 10".

Clear. No A.B. to 93". .

Clearing at 6". Mostly clear at 10". No A.B, to 10".

Clear. A.B., slight. No streamers detected. (50) Raining. Obs. impos.

Clear. No A.B. during the evening to 93".

Obs. uncertain on account of clouds. Possibly a very faint light. Clear. No A.B.

Thickly ov’t. Obs. impos. to 11", and doubtless all night.

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and doubtless all night.

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 12".*

Mostly ov’t at 6". Clear at 10%. No A.B. to 103”.

Thinly ov’t. No A.B. seen. Cloudy about horizon.

Clear. No A.B. to 10".

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10, and probably all night.

Ov’t at 6", Clear at 10". No A.B. to 10%.

Ov’t. Obs. impos. to 10", and doubtless all night.

Ov’t: rainy. Obs. impos.

Clear. No A.B. visible to 10". Moon however interferes.

Ov’t. Rain during evening. Obs. impos. to 10".

Clear. A.B., splendid.* (51) Clear. A.B., moderate: streamers and red spots. (52)

Partly ov’t. No A.B. seen, but obs. unc. on ac’t of moon and haze. Ov’t: obs.