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The Pennsylvania

Horticultural Society

From the library of MARY HELEN WINGATE LLOYD giv^n by her sons

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Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2011 with funding from

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation

http://www.archive.org/details/annalsofhorticul1850unse

THE

ANNALS OF HORTICULTURE;

f9ear-33oofe of Mfovmutitm

PRACTICAL GARDENING,

EOR 1850.

LONDON : CHARLES COX, KING WILLIAM STREET, STRAND.

. 1850.

LONDON : R. CLAY, PRINTER, BREAD STREET HILL.

PREFACE.

The following pages contain a perfect record of all novelties and improvements that can interest the lovers of Horticultural pursuits, com- prising a fund of useful information appertaining to all branches of the science.

Among other papers may be specially noticed those on the Flori- culture of the Months, by Mr. Glenny, in which are described all the principal Florists' Flowers that have been raised, or exhibited during the year, and which cannot be too strongly recommended to the perusal of Amateur Florists. . .

To the Plant Collector, the papers on New Flowers and Plants will prove especially valuable, as describing every New Plant that has been introduced; and perhaps the best lessons that could be given upon the General Management of a Garden, may be found in the series of papers under the title of " A Stroll through the Garden, by a Tutor and his Pupil ;" while the more elaborate Treatises on the Culture of particular Plants establish the character of the work as an interesting and

instructive volume to the lovers of a Garden. 50

' *:()

ILLUSTRATIONS.

AbROXIA r.MREU.ATA, 90.

Agave mcxieana, 509. Agave mexicana, bloom of, 510. Algum tree, 557. AlstrSmeria oculata, 393. Alstromcria pelegri'.a, 385. American Aloe, 509. Araucaria imbricata, 468. Aristolocbia picta, 261. Arbor-vita?, 315. Azalea alta-clerense, 241.

Bee Larkspur, 362. Bejaria coarctata, 221. Bill-hook, 425. Boronia pinnata, 145. Bottle-tree of Australia, 155. Budding, illustrations of, 418, 419. Burtonia villosa, 9.

Callistephus cbinensis, 361. Campanula Medium, 357. Candelabrum, floral design or a,

445. Canterbury Bells, 357. Carpinus Betulus, 471. Cedar of Goa, 163. Cedrus Deodara, 466. Centradenia floribunda, 546. Cereus Leeanus, 81. Chsetogastra strigosa, 175. Cheirantbus Cheiri, 357. Chili Pine, 468. China aster, 361. Chinese Arbor-vitse, 315. Clematis indivisa, 227. Cockscomb, the, 529. Convolvulus arvensis, 363. Covered wall, 54. Crocus, the, 63. Cupressus lusitaniea, 163. Cuttings prepared and planted, 415. Cyclamen Coum, 337. Cvpripedium Calceolus, 504.

Delabechia rupestris, 155. Delphinium grandifiorum flore-

pleno, 362. Deodar, 466. Dianthus deltoides, 560. Dibble, 408. Digging fork, 401.

Emigrants' houses, 143. Epidendrum funiferum, 200. Epimedium pinnatum, 377. Exacum zeylanicum, 319.

Fencing, details of, 132, 133.

Ficus carica, 1.

Fig, the, 1.

Flower-stands, ornamental, 446,

447. Flower support, new, 189. Fork, digging, 401. Fork, hand, 409.

Galanthus nivalis, 113. Garden hammer, 425. Garden knife, 425. Garden line, 425. Gloxinia fimbriata, 513. Grafting, diagrams of, 188, 417. Grafting oranges, 55.

Hamilton's flower support, 189. Hand-fork, 409. Hepatica triloba, 362. Hoe, draw, 405. Hoe, Dutch, 405. Hoe, pronged, 425. Horminum pyrenaicum, 561. Hornbeam, the, 471.

Inarching, diagrams of, 188.

Kalmia latifolia, 300.

Lady's slipper, 504. Lapageria rosea, 289. Layering illustrated, 416, 417. Lime tree, the, 473. Limnanthes rosea, 179. Lisianthus pulcher, 168. Log houses for emigrants, 143. Lupinus nanus, 361.

Magnolia grandiflora, 433. Mattock, 425. Mimosa sensitiva, 539. Myanthus fimbriatus, 281. Myosotis suaveolens, 503.

Olea europsea, 67.

Olive, the, 67.

Orange, the, 49.

Oranges, illustrations of grafting,

Ornamental stand, 446. Ornamental vases, 446, 447.

Paper Keed, 517. Papyrus antiquorum, 517. Passiflora amabilis, 22. Pentstemon Verplanckii, 105. Petunia nyctaginiflora, 481. Petunia punctata, 482. Petunia violacea, 481. Polygonum vacciniifolium, 76. Pomegranate, the, 216. Ponds, diagrams, and sections of,

127—129. Pronged Hoe, 425. Pruning diagrams of cuts, 410. Punica Granatum, 216.

Rake, 406.

Ehododendron Dalhousise, 268. Rhododendron Roylii, 272. Rhyncopera punctata, 252. Ridge culture, diagram of, 411 Rogiera amoena, 552.

Santalum album, 557.

Sensitive plant, 539.

Snowdrop, the, 113.

Spade, 403.

Stannia formosa, 231 .

Sunk fence, 133.

Swammerdamia antennaria, 182.

Thuja orientalis stricta, 315. Tilia europcea, 473. Timber moving, 131. Transplanted seedlings, 409, 463. Trenching, diagrams illustrating,

404, 405. Tropasolum Deckerianum, 1 93. Tropseolum oxalianthum, 88.

Vases, ornamental, 446, 447. Villarsia nymphasoides, 372. Viola odorata, 97. Violet, the, 97." Wall-flower, 357. Wall-protector, 54. Walk, section of, 406. Water reservoirs, 127 129. Watering-can, 415. AYatering, illustration of, 41 4. Wheel-barrow, 425.

CON T'E N TS.

Abronia umbellata, 79, 90 ; A . cali-

fomica, 79. Abutilon venosum, 478. Acacia salicina, 42. Achimenes Kleei, 553. Aconiturn variegatum, 558 ; A. spe-

ciosum, 558. Adenostoma fascieulata, 250. Adventitious shoots of plants, 567. Aerides suavissimum, 554. iEschynanthus Paxtoni, 76. Afghanistan, vegetable productions

of, 541. Agave Mexicana, 509. Ageratum Mexicanuni, 225. (See

Errata ) Agriculture and Chemistry, 66. Algaa, denned, 234. Algum-tre'e of Scripture, 555. AUamurr, 213. Alloplectus capitatus, 364; A.spe-

ciosus, 364. Alstromeria, cultivation of, 385;

history and properties of, 386 ;

physiology of, 387 ; affinities of,

387 ; the species of, described,

388 ; general culture, 394. Amaryllis leonensis, 108. Amelioration of the soil, 401. American Aloe, 509. American Cranberry, culture of,

288. American plants, neglect of, 454 ;

public exhibitions of, 40, 230. Amherstia nobilis, 364, 515. Amorphophallus leonensis, 108. Anacharis Alsinastrum, 48. Anagallis Phillipsii, 225. Anastatica hierochuntina, 333,

454. Ancient Greece, flower gardens of,

168. Andromeda hracteata, 398. Anemone nivalis, 199. Angrascum Pescatoreanum, 554. Annual flowers, select, 180. Anthadenia sesamoides, 107. Antirrhinums, select, 508. Apricot, the Kaisha, 345. April, stroll in the garden, 150. Aquatics, planting, 462. Araucaria imbricata, 238, 468 ; A.

excelsa, 469. Arbour-making with trees, 525. Aristolochia picta, 259, 260; A.

macradenia, 479. Aromatic reed, 190. Artemisias, cotton-bearing, 178. Artificial propagation, principles

and practice of, 415. Artistic designs, flowers the lead- ing objects of, 444. Arum fjuttatum, 478. Asclcpias Douglasii, 41.

Asparagus, Austrian mode of grow- ing, 574.

A sparagus of the Cossacks, 524.

Asystasia scandens, 330 ; A. qua- terna, 330.

Atmosphere of hot-houses, ma- nuring, 239.

Auckland, Earl of, 94.

August, stroll in the garden, 366,

Augusta grandiflora, 197.

Auriculas, new, 230.

Australia, sketch of the vegetation of, 206.

Australian Bottle-tree, 154.

Austrian mode of growing Aspa - ragus, 574.

Azalea ramentacea, 512.

Azaleas, hardy, cultivation of, 241 ; . parent varieties of, 242 ; forming beds for, 242; planting, 242; layering, 243 ; propagating by earthing up, 243 ; raising from seed, 244 ; after-culture, 244 ; forming standards, 245.

Azaleas, Indian, 237 ; spur-pruning of, 314 ; new, 279.

Balyan, 208.

Bamboo, sacred, 572.

Barkeria melanocaulon, 45.

Barrack gardens, 283, 354.

Bartonia aurea, 181.

Bass mats, 474.

Bean, scarlet runner, 299.

Beautiful, the, in landscape scenery, 351, 547'.

Bedding roses, 206.

Bedding-out system in flower-gar- dens, 224.

Beds for flowers, form of, 192.

Begonia cinnabarina, 478; B. au- rantiaca, 478.

Bejaria coarctata, 197, 221.

Berberis Aquifolium for shrub- beries, 70.

Berlin, the gardens of, 309.

Bindweed, 363.

Black Prince strawberry, 576.

Boehmeria nivea, fibre of, 218 ; B. Puya, fibre of, 218.

Boronia, eulture of, 145; species of, 146; propagation, 147; general management, 148.

Botanical expedition into Wales in 1639, 236."

Botanical Magazine, 46 ; new plants of 1848 published in, 48.

Botanv, Lindley's Introduction to, 23/

Bottle-tree of Australia, 1 54.

Bouquets, arrangement of flowers in, 565.

Bouvardia triphylla, var. splendens,

Box edgings, 94.

Brachycome iberidifolia, 181.

Brassia coryandra, 45.

Brazil, vegetation of, 334.

Britain, forest trees of, 465.

British Wild-flowers : the Snow- drop, 113; Villarsia nympha^oi- des, 372 ; Myosotis suaveolens, 503 ; Cypripedium Calceolus, 504 ; the Maiden pink, 560.

Brocoli, early purple, 321.

Broditea californica, 79.

Brtickea grandifolia, 260, 526.

Budding, propagation by, 417.

Buds and bulbs, analogy between, 29 .

Bulbs grown in moss, 220.

Bulbs, hardy, culture of, 379 ; various kinds, 380.

Bulbs, planting, 462.

Bunya-bunya, 211.

Burtonia, the genus, 8 ; species of, 8 ; propagation, 9 ; general cul- ture, 10.

Butterflies, to kill, 235.

Butterfly-plant, 205.

By-yu, 214.

Cabbage stumps, 432.

Cacalia aurea, 181.

Cactus nobilis, 260.

Calanthe vestita, 330.

Calceolaria, new, 317; C. integri- folia, var. angustifolia, 225 ; C. i. var. viscosissima, 225 ; C. Kav- ana, 225 ; C. alba, 225; C. Poly- phemus, 225 ; C. amplexicaulis, 225.

Calcostylis aurantiaca, 479.

California, vegetable production? of, 84 ; climate of, 83 ; geogra- phical features, 82 ; the gold of, 87.

Calliopsis bicolor, 181 ; C. Drum- mondii, 181.

Callistemon brachyandrum, 197.

Callitris, species of, 565 ; manage- ment, 564.

Calochortus, the, 574 ; C. pallidus, 480.

Cdlomba, 209.

Calonyction macranthum, 109.

Camellia japonica Zavonia, 111 ; C. j. Boss' Superb, 111 ; C. j. Emiliana alba, 111 ; C. j. Ar- mida rosea, 112 ; C j. Grand Duke Constantine, 112; C. j. Borgia, 112; C.j. Hafilda, 384, 400; C.j.Eubini, 39S.

Camellias, new, 111 ; growing on wall-trellises, 336 ; growing in rooms, 574.

Campanula Loreyi, 181 ; C. carpa- tica, 225 ; C. c. var. alba, 225.

Canada, natural history of, 116.

CONTENTS.

Canterbury bells, 362.

Cape Jasmine, or Gardenia, 523.

Cardamine latifolia, adventitious

shoots of, 507. Carnations, new, 307. Carpinns Betulus, -170.

Carrots, 17.

Oastanea chrysophylla, 250.

Cattleya amethystina, 44 ; C. elc- gans, I I.

Cauliflower, Early Lcydon, 91.

Ceanothus dentatus, 250; C. rigi- dus, 250 ; C. papillosus, 250 ; C. cuneatus, 250 ; C. integerrimus, 250.

Ccdrus Dcodara, 48, 465.

Ccntradenia floribunda, 546, 553.

Cerasus ilieifolia, 250.

Cereus Leeanus, 79, 81 ; C. reduc- tus, 260.

Ceylon, vegetation of, 254.

Chrctogastra strigosa, 78, 175.

Charcoal peat, uses and value of,430.

Oh irostylis marmorata, 46.

Chemistry and Agriculture, 66.

Chili pine, 468.

China aster, 361.

Chinese grass cloth, 218.

Chinese Tree Peonies, 224.

Chironia glutinosa, 42; C. trinervis, 107.

Chiswick, shows of 1849, 464.

Chrysanthemum, preparing for ex- hibition, 506.

Cinerarias, new, 37, 230, 279.

Cleisostoma lanatum, 553.

Clematis indivisa, 227.

Clcome bicolor, var. concolor, 197.

Climbing plants, management of, 156.

Clintonia pulcbella, 181.

Cobbett's notions of pruning, 449.

Cockscomb, cultivation of, 529 ; properties of, 529 ; shifting, 531 ; watering, 533 ; M'Evoy's dwarf- ing system, 532 ; raising seed, 532 ; calendar, 533.

Coelestina ageratoides, 225. (See Errata.)

Coelogyne fuliginosa, 259 ; C. as- perata, 347, 364 ; C. Lowii, 477.

Collinsia tinctoria, 250 ; C. grandi- flora, 181; C. bicolor, 181.

Collomia grandiflora, 181.

Colonists, gardening and farming for, 124.

Compost for pot plants, 288.

Coniferous plants : the Cupressus, 163; the Taxodium, 247; the Thuja, 314 ; the Callitris, 561.

Continental gardens, notes on, 307.

Convolvulus, field, 363.

Convolvulus tricolor, 181.

Corchorus capsularis, fibre of, 217.

Corn salad, 480.

Correa, the, notes on, 383.

Cortusa Matthioli, 348.

Cossacks' Asparagus, 524.

Cotton-bearing Artemisias, 178.

Cranberry, American, culture of, 288.

Crocuses, culture of, 62 ; to grow for increase, 63 ; raising from seeds, 63 ; the two classes of, 64 ; preserving the bulbs, 65 ; pro- perties of, 65 ; monthly treat- ment, 65; fine new, 189.

Cropping and rotation of crops, 419.

Crops for emigrants and colonists, 137 ; preservation of, 421.

Cross breeding, 157, 521.

Croweasaligna, var. stricta, 512.

Cupania Cunninghami, 511.

C uph.ea purpurea, 198 ; 0. hybrida, 198; C. platycentra, 225.

Cupressus, the species and varieties of, 163 ; C. Govcniana, 250, 513 ; C. macrocarpa, 513; C. Lam- bertiana, 513.

Curcuma cordata, 199.

Curiosities of vegetation : the bottle-tree of Australia, 154 ; the sensitive plant, 539.

Currant, Gondouin's red, 318.

Cut flowers, remarks on, 73.

Cuttings, propagation by, 415.

Cyclamen, cultivation of, 337, 573; species of, 337 ; raising from seed, 339 ; treatment of the young plants, 340; for blooming, 341 ; sickly plants, 341 ; as a window plant, 342; forcing, 343; treat- ment of hardy species, 343.

Cyclobothra, the, 574; C. mono- phylla, 80.

Cycnoches barbatum, 555.

Cypress, deciduous, 247 ; Funebral, 285 ; Italian, 528.

Cypripedium Calceolus, 504.

Cypripediums, hardy, culture of, 505.

Cyrtanthera catalpaefolia, 258 ; C. aurantiaca, 479.

Cyrtochilum citrinum, 365;^ C. Karwinshii, 80.

Cyrtopodiuaa cardiochilum, 554.

Dahlias, notes on, 93 ; growing dwarf, 321 ; preparing for ex- hibition, 427 ; Glenny's notes on, of 1849, 476 ; new, 38, 107, 475, 507, 561, 562.

December, stroll in the garden, 534.

Deciduous Cypress, 247.

Degeneration of flowers, its causes, 537.

Delabechea rupestris, 155.

Delphinium Ajacis, 181; D. Con- solida, 181.

Dendrobium Farmeri, 42.

Deodar Cedar, 48, 465.

Dianella elegans, 80.

Dianthus deltoides, 560.

Dichorisandra ovata, 78.

Digging, principles and practice of, 11, 158, 403 ; tools for, 163.

Dignanthe pygmaea, 555.

Dipladenia urophylla, 41 ; D. no- bilis, var. rosea, 44 ; D. illustris, 477.

Division, propagation by, 417.

Dossinia marmorata, 45.

Downing's Landscape Gardening, 349, 547.

Draining land, 571.

Dresden, the gardens at, 309, ex- hibition at, 309,

Earl of Auckland, death of, 94.

Earth-nut, the, 336.

Earthing up crops, principles and

practice of, 411. Echeveria fulgens, 109: E laxa,

512; E. farinosa. 513.

Echinacea intermedia, 77. Eehitea illustris, 477 ; E. insignia,

Emigrants, gardening and farming

for, 124. Epacris, culture of, 345. Epidcndrum funiferum, 43, 200;

E. sulphurcum, 45 ; E. gravidum,

196 ; E. tctrcigonum, 260 ; E.

fragrans, var. megalanfhum, 348,

364; E. vanidifolium, 555. Epimedium pinnatum, 377 ; E.

colchicum, 377. Erica Watsoni, 48 ; E. carnea, 239. Eriopsis rutidobulbon, 198. Eriostemon intermedium, 199. Escullonia macrantha, 480. Eschscholtzia crocea, 181. Exacum zeylanicum, 107, 319. Exhibition, preparing flowers for,

dahlias 427 ; verbenas, 429 ;

chrysanthemums, 506.

February, stroll in the garden, 60.

Fences, 568, 570 ; the sod fence, 568 the dry stone wall fence, 568 the thorn or quickset fence, 568 general management of, 569.

Fertilizing liquid, 112.

Fibre, various kinds of vegetable, 217 ; uses of, 217.

Fig, culture under glass, 7 ; choice of sorts, 2 ; soil for, 3 ; propa- gating, 4 ; training and pruning on walls, 5 ; treatment in pots, 6.

Fischeria Martiana, 511.

Flax, as an ornamental plant, 323.

Floors of sand and lime, 47.

Floriculture of 1848, 36 ; of 1849— January, 71 ; February, 105 ; March, 152 ; April, 228 ; May, 279 ; June, 317 ; July, 378 ; Au- gust, 397; September, 474; Octo- ber, 507 ; November, 561 ; gene- ral review of the state of, 562.

Florist's flowers, lists of, often fal- lacious, 312.

Flower, definition of, 29.

Flower-gardening, modern, 224, 273 ; cheap, 235.

Flower-gardens of ancient Greece, 168.

Flower-gardens, planting for suc- cession, 287 ; select plants for, 181, 224.

Flower-support, new, 189.

Flowers and fruits of Scripture : the olive, 67 ; the pomegranate, 216 ; the papyrus, or paper reed, 516 ; the algum tree, 555.

Flowers, degeneration of, its causes, 536 ; arrangement of, in bouquets, 565.

Flowers, rejected, 192.

Flowers, the leading embellish- ments of artistic designs, 444.

Forced plants, proper treatment of, 103.

Forest trees in parks, 324 ; of Bri- tain, 465.

Fossil forest, 332.

French or fancy geraniums, 328.

Fruit-crops, preservation of, 422: thinning of, 528.

Fruits proved in the garden of the Horticultural Society, 91.

Fruits of North America, 286 ; new, 91, 318.

CONTENTS.

Fruit-tree borders, proper manage- ment of, 346.

Fruit-trees, pruning dwarf stan- dard, 323 ; Cobbett's notions of pruning, 449.

Fuchsia corymbiflora alba, 399 ; F. globosa, 225 ; F. microphylla, 225 ; F. corallina, 225.

Fuchsias as show plants, 166 ; new, 378, 397, 508 ; present mode of culture, 558.

Fumigating greenhouses, 47.

Funebral cypress, 285.

Fungi defined, 233; notes on, 519 ; propagation of, 519 ; qualities of, 519 ; properties of, 520.

Garden operations : January, 11 ; February, 60 ; March, 101 ; April, 150 ; May, 194; June, 245; July, 297 ; August, 366 ; September, 426 ; October, 447 ; November, 487 ; December, 534.

Garden pots, ornamental, 285.

Garden, taking possession of a, 394 ; first operations in a, 395 ; situa- tion for a, 527 ; preparatory ope- rations in a, 570.

Gardeners, juvenile, how to instruct, 357.

Gardenia, or Cape jasmine, 523.

Gardening and farming for colo- nists and emigrants : choice of a farm, 124; taking possession, 125 ; providing supply of water, 127; how to appropriate a swamp, 128 ; clearing woodland, 130 ; fences, 132 ; preparation for crops, 134.; draining, 135; cropping and cultivation, 136 ; stock, and feeding it, 143 ; dwellings, 143.

Gardening for children, 357.

Gardening for soldiers, 283, 354.

Gardening, practical, familiar les- sons on, 401 ; amelioration of the soil, 401 ; trenching and digging, 403 ; hoeing and raking, 405 ; walk making, 406 ; weeding, 406; sowing, 407 ; planting and trans- planting, 408 ; pruning, 409 ; root pruning, 410; sloping bank culture, 411 ; earthing up crops, 411 ; manuring, 412 ; liquid manuring, 414 ; watering, 414 ; artificial propagation, cut- tings 415, layering 416, divi- sion 417, grafting 417, bud- ding 418 ; cropping and rotation of crops, 419 ; preservation of crops, vegetables 421, fruits 422 ; insects and vermin, 423 ; tools required, 425.

Gardens under glass, 89.

Gardner, Dr., death of, 285.

Gaultheriabracteata,398 ; G. erecta, G. odorata, G. cordifolia, G. ri- gida, 398.

Gazania uniflora, 225.

Gemmae, or leaf buds, 27.

Genus, Herbert's definition of a 305.

Geraniums, French or fancy, 328.

Gesnera picta, 196.

Gilia achillesefolia, 181 G tri- color, 181,

Gladiolus fioribundus, Belgian va- rieties of, 516.

Glass, cheap mode of growing fruits under, 237.

Glenny on the orange-tree, 49 ; on the petunia, 481 ; on the cocks- comb, 529.

Glenny's fioricultural notes, 36, 71, 105, 152, 228, 279, 317, 378, 397, 474, 507, 561; notes on dahlias of 1849, 476.

Glenny's Handbook to the Flower- garden, &c, 266.

Gloxinia fimbriata, 196, 513.

Godetialepida, 181 ; G. Lindleyana, 181 ; G. tenuifolia, 181.

Gompholobium hirsutum, 200.

Gonolobus Martianus, 511.

Good growth, versus props, 543.

Gooseberry grub, history of, 120.

Gourds, culture of, 177.

Grafting, illustrated, 188; grafting grasses, 236 ; propagation by, 417.

Grape refuse, 525.

Grapes, experiments on, 237.

Grapes, new : Queen Muscat, 91 ; De Croen's Eoyal, 318.

Grasses, grafting, 236.

Greece, ancient, flower-gardens of. 168.

Greenhouses, fumigating, 47.

Gunnera scabra, 251.

Hammersmith Pansy Society, 562.

Heating horticultural buildings, 382.

Heintzia tigrina, 259, 527.

Heitzing, Baron Hugel's garden at, 308.

Heliconia angustifolia, 553.

Henfreya scandens, 330.

Hepatica, 362.

Herbs, planting, 462.

Heterotrichum macrodon, 77.

Hibiscus Manihot, 321.

Hoeing, principles and practice of, 290, 405 ; tools for, 292.

Holly as an ornamental shrub, 235.

Hollyhocks, new, 397 ; select, 475.

Hooker's rhododendrons of Sik- kim Himalaya, 268.

Hormimrm pyrenaicum, 561.

Hornbeam, the, 470.

Horse-chestnuts for food, 237.

Horse-radish, culture of, 323.

Horticultural Society of London, affairs of, 248 ; new plants intro- duced by, 250 ; the May show of, 278 ; abstracts of papers and proceedings of, 321 ; the shows of 1849, 464.

Hot-houses, night temperature of, 514.

Hovea, cultivation of, and selection of kinds, 267.

Hoya picta, 79, 331 ; H. variegata, 79, 331.

Hugel's, (Baron,) garden, 308.

Hyacinth, culture of, 373 ; selection of, 374 ; culture in pots, 376 ; to prepare flowering bulbs, 228.

Hybridization of plants, 157, 521.

Hybrids, varieties and species, 303.

Iberis coronaria, 181 : 1, nmbellata,

181. Ice-houses, 237.

Inarching illustrated, 188.

Indian Azaleas, 237.

Indian Bread, 236.

Indus, vegetation on banks of, 541.

Insects, injurious, destruction of,

423. Ipomoea purpurea, 181; /. Krusen-

sternii, 109. Iris, from seeds, 262 ; properties of,

523. Iron work, best mode of tarring,

48. May, the, 250. Isotoma axillaris, 225. Italian Cypress, 528. Ixora coccinea, culture of, 367. Ivy, ornamental, 47; Ivy and other

underwood, 264.

January, stroll in the jrarden, 11.

Jatropha podagrica, 250.

Jericho, rose of, 333, 454.

Johns' Forest Trees of Britain, 465.

Journal of the Plorticultural So- ciety, 344.

Juglans Pitteursii, 110.

July, stroll in the garden, 297.

June, stroll in the garden, 245.

Justicia bracteolata, 259.

Jute, fibre of, 217.

Juvenile gardeners, how to teach, 357.

Kadsura japonica, 399.

Kaisha, a new Syrian Apricot, 345.

Kalmia latifolia, cultivation of 300 ; soil and situation, 300 ; raising from seeds, 300 ; after-manage- men, 301 ; layering, 302 ; as a standard, 302 ; forcing, 303 ; other hardy species of, 303.

Kashmir, vegetation of, 441.

Kennedya eximia, 196 ; K. taba- cina, 196.

Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens at, 282.

Kiel, the gardens of, 312.

Lacepedea insignis, 289, 399.

Lagerstrosmia indica, 573.

Lamb's lettuce, 480.

Landscape Gardening : the beau- tiful and picturesque, 349, 547.

Lantana crocea, 225 ; L. Sellowii, 225.

Lapageria rosea, 2S9, 330.

Larkspur, double bee, 362.

Lathyrus odoratus, 181.

Lathyrus tuberosus, as an esculent, 222.

Laurus regalis, 250.

Layering, propagation by, 416.

Leaf buds, structure of, 27

Leaves, raising plants from, 237.

Lecythis Zabucago, 333.

Leptosiphon aureus, 250 ; L. andro- saceus, 181 ; L. densifiorus, 181.

Lettuce stumps, 432.

Lichens, defined, 233.

Lilium, cultivation of, and selec- tion of kinds, 266.

Lime and sand for floors, 47.

Lime, nature and application of, 183.

Lime-tree, the, 472.

Limnanthes rosea, 80, 179 ; L.pul- chella, 80 ; L, alba, 198.

CuNTI'.NTS.

Lindley's Introduction to Botany,

23.

Ldnum ilavum, 22(3.

Liquid, fertiliser, 112; manuring, 414.

Lisianthus pu Ichor, 108, 167; L. -., yUmxcus, 1 "7 ; L. prineeps, 552.

Loasa picta, 110, 267.

Lobelia dcnsirlora, 198; L. graci- lis, 182 ; L.Erinus,225; L.E.com- paeta, 225 ; L. E. compacta alba, 226.

London Floricultural Society, 39.

Lotos, the, 325.

Lupinus affinis, 250 ; L. nanus, 182, 361.

Macleania punctata, 10S.

Magnolia, cultivation of, 433 ; hardy evergreen species, 433 ; hardy deciduous species, 434 ; half- hardy species, 435 ; synonymes, 435 ; unintroduced species, 435 ; propagation, 435: raising from seeds, 437 ; general management, 437.

Mahonia Aquifolium, 70.

Maiden Pink, 560.

Malope trifida, 1S2.

Manilla hemp, 219.

Manure, liquid, 414.

Manuring, the atmosphere of hot- houses, 239 ; principles and prac- tice of, 412.

March, stroll in the garden, 101.

Mathiola annua, 182.

Matricaria grandiflora, 226.

Mats, garden, 474.

Maxillaria leptosepala, 198.

May, stroll in the garden, 194.

Melastoma strigosa, 78 ; M . ciliata, 78.

Melissa pyrenaica, 561.

Menynthes nymphceoides, 372.

Mesembryanthemum pj'ropteum, 182.

Metrosideros polymorphus, 480.

Miltonia Karwinskii, 80 ; M. spec- tabilis, var. purpureo-violacea, 109.

Mimosa sensitiva, 539 ; M. pudica, 539.

Mimulus tricolor, 348, 363.

Mirbelia Meisneri, 77.

Mocinia mutisioides, 197.

Modern flower-gardening, 224 ; bedding-out system, 224 ; half- hardy plants for, 225 ; manage- ment of bedded-out plants, 273 ; arrangement of flower-garden plants, 274.

Monardella undulata, 250.

Mormodes lentiginosa, 364.

Moss, to grow bulbs in, 220.

Mucuna niacrocarpa, 258.

Mulberry trees, 191.

Musa textilis, fibre of, 219.

Mushroom, French mode of culti- vating, 263.

Musstenda Afzelii, 198.

Myanthus fimbriatus, 281, 399, 400.

Myosotis suaveolens, 503; M alpes- tris, 503 ; M. rupicola, 503 ; M. azorica, 555.

Nandina domestica, 572. Navarretia pubescens, 199 ; N. co- tulrefolia, 199.

Nelumbium Bpecioaum, culture of,

288, 822. Nematanthus ionema, 399. Ncmophila maculata, 1S2 ; N. in-

signis, 182. Nepenthes sanguinea, 511 ; N. albo-

marginata, 511 ; N. Hookeriana,

511. New Camellias, 111. New flowers and plants, 11, 76, 107,

196, 258, 330, 347, 363, 398,

477,511, 552. New fruits, 91, 318, 345. New plants of 1848, 34. New vegetables, 91. Nierembergia gracilis, 226 ; N.

filicaulis, 226 ; N. intermedia,

226. Night temperature of hot-houses,

51*. Niphaea rubida, 511. North America, fruits of, 286. Novelties, hints about judging,

107. November, stroll in the garden,

487. Nutmegs, statistics of, 443. Nuttallia cerasiformis, 348, 512. Nymphtea rubra, culture of, 287;

N. ccerulea, 287.

Oadal fibre, 218.

October, stroll in the garden, 447.

Octomeris macrodon, 77. -

Odontonema hicidum, 259.

Oenothera macrocarpa, 226.

Olive, the, 67.

Oncidium flabelliferum, 199; O. Karwinskii, 80 ; O. Papilio, 205; O. sarcodes, 554; O. Eig- byanum, 554 ; O. panchrysum, 554.

Onion, underground, 331.

Ophrys vespifera, 349, 365 ; O. mammosa, 349, 365.

Orange- trees, culture of, 49 ; soil for, 49 ; choice of plants, 51 ; choice of boxes or tubs, 51 ; shifting, 52 ; pruning, 53 ; culture as wall-fruit, 53 ; as standards in a conservatory, 54 ; raising from seed, 54 ; by cuttings, 56 ; in- arching, 54 ; grafting, 55 ; monthly treatment of, 56.

Orchids prefer cool treatment, 238.

Ornamental garden-pots, 285.

Osbeckia ornata, 78.

Oseille des neiges, 559.

Oxalis crenata, as a vegetable, 550.

Oxalis elegans, 399 ; O. floribunda, 226 ; O. crenata, 550 ; O. arra- caclia, 550.

Oxali.-:es for winter flowering, 528.

Oxycoccus, culture of, 288.

Pachystigma pteleoides, 200. Pasonia Moutan versicolor, 348,

365 ; P. M. atrosanguinea, 348,

365. Pancratium ptarvijlorum, 513. Panke, 251.

Pansy Society, Hammersmith, 562. Papyrus, or Paper Reed, the, 516. Parks, forest-trees in, 324. Passifiora amabilis, 22 ; P. ccerulea

Neumanriii, 77; P. myriadenia,

110.

Patchouli, 554.

Peas, pricking out for early erops,

574. Peat-moss and charcoal, uses, pro- perties, and value of, 430. Pelargoniums, the fancy or French, 328 ; the genus as flower-garden plants, 572 ; new, 279, 317 ; select varieties for the flower- garden, 226, 572. Pentstemon ovatus atro-cccruleus, 44; P. gentianoides, 77; P. Hartwegii Verplanckii, 77, 104 ; P. II. allms, 226 ; P. H, cocci- neus, 226 ; P. speciosus, 237 ; P. cordifolius, 250; P. hctcrophyl- lus, 250 ; P. azureus, 250 ; P. cyananthus, 478. Pesomeria tctragona, 260. Petunia, cultivation of, 481 ; raising from seed, 482 ; propagating by cuttings, 483 ; growing large plants, 483 ; properties of, 484 ; progress of, as a florist's flower, 484 ; monthly operations, 485 ; new, 397 ; select varieties for ornamental gardening, 226. Phlox Drummondii, 182. Phrynium trifasciatum, 109.

Picotee, Duchess of Sutherland, 453 ; new varieties of, 397.

Picrorhiza Kurroa, 42.

Picturesque, the, in landscape scenery, 351, 547.

Pine-apple, cultivation of, 201 ; soil, 201, 203 ; temperature and bottom heat, 202 ; routine man- agement, 203.

Pink beds, 167.

Pinks, new, 39, 318 ; properties of, 72.

Pinus Fremontiana, 512.

Pinus nepalensis, seeds of, edible, 237.

Pinus tribe, raising plants of, 524.

Planting, principles and practice of, 408, 456 ; tools required, 409, planting, large trees 459, smaller trees and shrubs 461, herbs 462, bulbs 462, aquatics 463, seedlings 463.

Plants for select flower gardens, 180, 225.

Plants, vital action of, 31.

Platycodon autumnale, 479.

Plazia brasiliensis, 197.

Pogostemon Patchouli, 554 ; P. intermedins, 554.

Pollen, preservation of, 307.

Polyanthuses, new, 230.

Polygonum vacciniifolium, 76, 79; P. Brunonis, 200.

Pomegranate, the, 216.

Poppy seeds as food, 48.

Popular Field Botany, 232.

Potato disease, Meyer's remedy, 238.

Potatoes under walls, 191; recipes for managing, 236.

Potentilla, culture of, 265 ; selection of, 265.

Potsdam, royal gardens at, 311.

Potted plants, planting out, 94 ; compost for, 288.

Pottery, garden, ornamental, 285.

Primula altaica, 330 ; P. nivalis, 330.

CONTENTS.

Prize-improvement funds, 74. Propagation by cuttings, 415 ;

layering, 416; division, 417;

grafting, 417 ; budding, 418. Properties of flowers, remarks on

the, 518. Properties of the Cockscomb, 529 ;

the Violet, 100; the Crocus, 65 ;

the Petunia, 484 ; the Iris, 523. Prop-system of exhibiting plants,

154, 230, 545. Props and supports, versus good

growth, 545. Pruning fruit-trees illustrated, 19 ;

dwarf standard fruit-trees, 323 ;

at the root, 410 ; Cobbett's no- tions of, 449. Pruning, principles and practice of,

409. Pucha-pat, 554. Punjab, vegetable productions of,

438. Puya fibre, 218.

Rain in 1847 and 1848, 237. Raking, principles and practice of,

292, 405 ; tools for, 292. Ranunculus, neglect of, 7 ; good

varieties, 318. Reed, aromatic, 190. Regent's Park shows of 1849, 464. Reseda odorata, 182. Reviews :

Introduction to Botany (Lindley) , 23 ; Canadian Naturalist (Gosse), 116 ; Letters of Rusticus on the Natural History of Godalming, 120 ; The use of Lime in Agri- culture (Johnston), 183; Popular Field Botany (Catlow), 232 ; Handbook to the Flower Garden, &c. (Glenny), 266; Rhododen- drons of Sikkim Himalaya (Hooker), 268 ; Journal of the Horticultural Society, 344 ; Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Garden- ing (Downing), 349 ; Gardening for Children (Johns), 2d Ed., 357; Forest Trees of Britain (Johns), 465 ; Beauties of the Rose (Curtis), 501. Rhamnus oleeefolius, 250. Rheum Emodi, for preserving, 480.

Phexia inconstans, 78 ; P. chamce- cistus, 78 ; P. ornata, 78 ; P. strigosa, 78.

Rhodanthe Manglesii, 182, 370; sowing, 370 ; shifting, 371.

Rhododendron ledifolium setosum, 43 ; R. 1. lacteolum striatum, 44 ; R. Dalhousiee, 272 ; R. lan- cifolium, 272 ; R. Wallichii, 272 ; R Campbellise, 272 ; R. Roylii, 272 ; R. cinnabarinum, 273 ; R. argenteum, 273 ; R. Falco- neri, 273 ; R. formosum, 479 ; P. Gibsoni, 479.

Rhododendrons of Sikkim Hima- laya, 268.

Rhubarb preserves, 480.

Rhyncopera punctata, 252, 260.

Ribes ferox, 250.

Rigidella orthantha, 107.

Rogiera amcena, 551, 554.

Root pruning, 410.

Rosa Devoniensis, 502.

Rose, Beauties of the, 501 .

Rose Catalogues, 50.",.

Rose of Jericho, 333, 454,

Roses, in beds, 206; to bud, 298 seedling, 369 ; in woods, 432 select, for limited gardens, 452 hints for selecting, 36.

Roses, select, and their manage- ment, 488 ; soil and situation, 488 ; manuring, 489 ; planting, 489 ; pruning, 489 ; insects af- fecting, 489 ; management of stocks, 490 ; selection for exhibi- tion, 490 ; selection for orna- ment, 491 ; selection for pot cul- ture, 499 ; pot culture of, 498 ; propagation of, cut- tings 500, grafting 500, bud- ding 500, layering 501, new 575.

Rotation of crops, 419.

Roupellia grata, 479.

Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, 282.

Royal Society for the Encourage- ment of Horticulture and Flori- culture, 73.

Puellia macropfiylla, 330.

Puibarbo, 250.

Rumex nivalis, a new sorrel, 559.

Russelia juncea, culture of, 329.

Sacred bamboo, 572.

Salvia patens, 226 ; S. p. alba, 226 ; S. fulgens, 226.

Sandal wood, 556.

Santalum album, 557.

Sauromatium guttatum, 478.

Schizanthus pinnatus, 182.

Schoenbrunn, imperial garden at, 308.

Sea voyage, preparing seeds for a, 576.

Sea- weeds, 234.

Sedum kamtschatkia, 110.

Seedling roses, 369.

Seedlings, the gratifications of rais- ing, 251 ; showing among named flowers, 253 ; inducements to raising, 320 ; transplanting, 463.

Seeds, preparing for a sea voyage, 576.

Sensitive plants, 539.

September, stroll in the garden, 426.

Shalimar, ancient gardens of, 440.

Shallots, how to grow, 223.

Shrubs, planting of, 461.

Sida venosa, 478.

Silene Armeria, 182.

Sisyrinchium longistylum, 109.

Slugs, to destroy, 235, 525.

Snails, to destroy, 48, 235, 525.

Snowdrop, the, 113.

Soils, amelioration of, 401.

Soldiers, gardening for, 283, 354.

Sorrel, new, 559.

Sowing, 12; principles and practice of, 407.

Species, Herbert's definition of a, 305.

Species, varieties, and hybrids, 303.

Sphenogyne speciosa, 182.

Spinach, culture of, 520 ; sowing the

seed, 520 ; thinning the plants,

520 ; winter crops, 521 ; soil and

situation, 521 ; saving seed, 521 .

Spur-pruning Azaleas, 314.

Stacbytarpheta dichotoma, 108. Sfadmannia australis, 511.

Stakes for supporting flowers, 526.

Standard shrubs, 92 ; ornamental trees, 178.

Stanhopea tricornis, 553.

Stannia formosa, 231, 259.

Stemonacanthus macrophyllus, 330.

Sterculia villosa, fibre of, 218; S. guttata, fibre of, 218.

Stifftia chrysantha, 1 97.

Stock, ten- weeks, 190 ; to preserve good seeds of, 453.

Stove plants, winter temperature for, 237.

Strawberry, Black Prince, 576.

Stroll through the garden by a tutor and his pupil :— -in January, 11 ; in February, 60; in March, 101 ; in April, 150; in May, 194 ; in June, 245 ; in July, 297 ; in Au- gust, 366 ; in September, 426 ; in October, 447; in November, 487 ; in December, 535.

Strophanthus Stanleyanus, 479.

Structure of a tree, 119.

Stai-ch, its nature and composition, 26.

Statice imbricata, 43.

Summer pruning, fruit-trees, 277 ; pears, 277; peaches, 277 ; apricots, 277 ; plums, 278 ; vines, 278.

Swammerdamia antennaria, 80, 182.

Sweet-Williams, double, 250.

Syrian apricot, new, 345.

Tacsonias, note on, 313. Tagetes tenuifolia, 182. Talauma mutabilis, 479. Tarring iron work, best mode of,

48. Taxodium, species of, 247 ; culti- vation, 248. Temperature proper in hot-houses

at night, 514. Ten-weeks stock, 190. Thuja, species and varieties of, 314. Thyrsacanthus bracteolatus, 259. . Tilia europsea, 472. Tissues, vegetable, 25. Toha, 515.

Torenia arracanensis, 79. Tradescantia glauca, 42 ; T. Wars-

zewicsiana, 80. Transplanting, see Planting. Tree Pseonies, Chinese, 224. Trees, ornamental, as standards,

176 ; large, planting of, 459 ;

making arbours -n-ith, 525. Trenching, principles and practice

of, 161, 403 ; tools for, 163. Triceraia tmifolia, 399. Triceros xalepensis, 399. Tricratus admirabilis, 79. Tropseolum oxalianthum, 43, 88 ;

T. tricolor versicolor, 78 ; T. t.

grandiflorum, 78; T. t. aurantia-

cum, 78 ; T. Deckerianum, 193,

258 ; T. minus, 182 ,- T. m. flore-

pleno, 226; T. majus flore-pleno

226. Tuckahoe, 236. Tulip fancy, the, 337. Tulips, new, 37 ; proportions of, 37. Typha latifolia, the asparagus of the

Cossacks, 524.

CONTENTS.

Uropcclium Lindenii, 42.

Urtica nivea, fibre of, 218 ; lr. fru-

tescons, fibre of, 218. Uvwria japonica, 399 ; U.hetero-

clita, 399.

Vaccinium macrocarpum, culture

of, 288. Vagaria parviiiora, 513. Valcriauella olitoria, ISO. Variegated leaves, 93. Varieties, hybrids, and species, 303. Variety, Herbert's definition of a,

305. Vegetable crops, preservation of,

421. Vegetable fibre, 217. Vegetable marrow, culture of, 177. Vegetable poisons, 239. Vegetable tissues, 25. Vegetables proved in the garden

of the Horticultural Society, 91. Vegetables, select, 237. Vegetation of Australia, 206 ,- of

Ceylon, 254 ; on the banks of the

White Nile, 325; of the Brazilian

forests, 334 ; of the Punjab and Kashmir, 438 ; on the banks of the Indus, 541.

Verbena dichotoma, 108.

Verbenas, notes on, 115 ; bedding out, 205 ; for bedding, 313 j pre- paring for exhibition, 429 ; new, 279, 475; select varieties for the flower-garden, 226", 227-

Vermin, destruction of, 423.

Vienna, gardens of, 307.

Violets, culture of, in beds, 97 ; in borders, 98 ; in clumps, 98 ; in pots, 98 ; in hot-beds, 99 ; in con- servatories, 99 ; raising from seed, 100; properties of, 100; varie- ties of, 221.

Villarsia nymphseoides, 372.

Vital action of plants, 31.

Vine culture, new system of, 239 ; at Wilinot's, 240.

Virgilia lutea, 525.

Vriesia glaucophylla, 41.

Wailesia picta, 552. Waldschmidia nymphceoides, 372.

Walk-making, 406. Wall-flower, 302.

Warrea Wailesiana, 553 ; W. dis- color, 553. Wasps, 235. Watering, large plants in tubs, 238 ;

principles and practice of, 414. Weeding, principles and practice

of, 293, 406 ; tools for, 297. Weeds, annual, 295 ; to destroy,

295. Weeds on neighbouring premises,

526. Weeds, perennial, 296 ; to destroy,

296. White Nile, vegetation on the

banks of, 325. Wireworms, to destroy, 235. Wistaria sinensis, var. alba., 347,

364. Wood, structure of, 119.

Zabucago-nut, 332. Zamia Fischeri, 197; Z. tenuifo- lia. 197.

ERRATA.

In Page 37, for " Ceres belleforme," read " Cerise Belle forme."

In Page 191, several places, for " potatos " read " potatoes."

In Page 225, for " Ageratum mexicanum" read " Ccelestina ageratoides.'

THE FIG :

ITS NATURE AND CULTURE UNDER GLASS AND IN THE OPEN AIR.

The Fig is one of those singular kinds of frnit that are totally useless unripe, and how- ever near they may come to perfection, any thing short makes them worthless. When thoroughly ripe they are very delicious, when but a little short of it, they are mawkish, sickly, and even rank. It would appear that the last few days of solar heat changes the entire cha- racter of the fig, and if the fruit be gathered before this change, they are unfit to eat, and, unlike almost every other of Pomona's gifts, they will do for nothing but the pigs ; they are of no use in tarts, they cannot be made into wine, and so far as we have been able to dis- cover they are good for nothing. Strictly speaking, they require protection to bring them forward, although they will fairly ripen in a hot summer, on the open wall in a southern aspect, and we have even known them, in very favourable seasons, to ripen on standards. They are something like the vine for bearing frost, and bringing fruit, and the season that will ripen the black Hamburgh grape, will un- questionably perfect the fig. Of the different modes of growing the fig, we shall speak in the proper