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NATURAL THEOLOGY;

OR

EVIDENCES

OP THE

EXISTENCE AND ATTRIBUTES

OP

THE DEITY,

COLLECTED FROM THE APPEARANCES OF NATURE.

BY WILLIAM PALEY, D. D.

ILLUSTRATED BT A

SERIES OF PLATES, AND EXPLANATORY NOTES,

BY JAMES PAXTON,

MEMBER OP THE ROYAL COLLEGE OP SURGEONS, LONDON.

VOL. L

OXFORD :

PUBLISHED BY J. VINCENT.

1826.

6^2 3.

TO TUB

honourable; and right reverend

SHUTE BARRINGTON, LL.D.

lord bishop of DURHAM.

My Lord,

To your suggestion the world is indebted for the existence of Dr. Paley's valuable work on Natural Theology. The universal and permanent esteem in which it has been held in this country, and its favourable reception in France, even after the desolating influence of the Revolution, have abundantly approved your Lordship's selection both of the subject and of the person to whom you intrusted it.

In looking round, then, for a patron for these Illustrations, it was natural to have recourse to him who was the original suggestor of the work which it is their object to explain. Nor was I disappointed in my wish; your Lordship

VOL. I. a

iw DEDICATION.

not only condescending to approve of the de- sign but to encourage me in its prosecution, by your very liberal support. For this distinguished honour you will believe me deeply sensible ; and if I may indulge the hope that my humble efforts will increase the utility of so eminent a writer, I shall consider it the highest gratification.

I am,

Mv Lord,

With great veneration. Your Lordship's most obliged

And obedient servant,

JAMES PAXTON.

Oxford, Janmary \, 1826.

The works of Dr. Paley have acquired that popularity which renders it scarcely necessary to observe that his Natural Tlieology was written to establish the truth of the agency and wisdom of the Deity from the admirable contrivances and mechanism displayed in natural objects, inferring from thence that the knowledge and power requi- site for the formation of created nature must be infinite.

The principal physical ai'guments made use of, relate to organs destined to mechanical func- tions, as the bones of man the muscles the structure of animals, or comparative anatomy prospective and compensatory contrivances in- sects and plants: with most of these objects the anatomist only can be conversant ; but all admit of graphic representation, and such has been at- tempted.

The designs of the following plates are original.

vi PREFACE.

obtained from the most authentic sources, and submitted to the critical examination of the most competent judges. It is hoped that the illustrations will be found the more interesting from their being simple and unincumbered by parts irrelevant to the subject of the author. These are accom- panied by notes, which are intended to supply defective or correct erroneous statements, and to explain the plates.

The undertaking originated in the difficulty of understanding the various descriptions intro- duced by Paley, not however from his want of clearness, for the subjects in general are plainly and correctly described; but it is evident that ^sible representations strike the mind more forci- bly than mere descriptions. It is therefore pre- sumed that the subsequent illustrations will be an acquisition, by bringing vivedly to the imagination, objects of which only an imperfect idea could otherwise be formed; and that they will conse- quently render the work more intelligible to the general reader.

CONTENTS.

VOL.1.

CHAPTER I.

8TATB OP TIIK ARGUMENT.

Stone.

Watch.

Description of the parts.

Eight statements of the case.

CHAPTER II.

STATB OF THB ARGUMENT CONTINUED.

CHAPTER III.

APPLICATION OF THE ARGUMENT.

Eye and telescope compared.

Light Distance.

Mechanism of the iris.

Straight muscles. ^

Bony rim of the eyes of birds.

Marsupium.

Eves of fishes.

of the eel.

Minuteness of picture on the retina. Socket Eye-brow Eye-lid Lachrymal apparatus. Nictitating membrane in birds its muscles. Expedients. Whv means used. Human ear. Ear of elephant. \oL. I b

VIII CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IV.

OP THB 8UCCB88I0N OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS.

No account hereby of contrivance.

Plants.

Oviparous ^

Viviparous > animals.

Rational ^

Instance in a gardener and flowers.

CHAPTER V.

APPLICATION OF THB ARGUMBNT CONTINUBD.

Repetition from Chapter I. Imperfection. Superfluous parts. Atheistic argument. Remains of possible forms. Use arising out of the parts. A principle of order. Of our ignorance.

CHAPTER VI,

THB ARGUMBNT CUMULATIVB.

CHAPTER VII.

THB MBCHANICAL AND IMMBCHANICAL PARTS AND FUNCTIONS OF

ANIMALS AND VB0BTABLB8.

Imperfection of knowledge no proof of want

of contrivance. Muscular action. Trochlear muscle. Chemistry. Electricity. Secretion. Kidney.

CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER VIII.

MBCHANICAL ARRANGBMBNT IN THB HUMAN FRAME.

Of Bones. Neck. Fore-arm. Spine.

of the serpent

Chest

Knee-pan.

Shoulder-blade.

Joints.

Ball and socket

Gynglymus or hinge-joint.

Knee.

Ligaments.

Ankle.

Shoulder.

Passage of blood-vessels.

Gristle.

Synovia.

Moveable cartilages.

How well the joints wear.

Immoveable joints.

CHAPTER IX.

OF THB MUSCLES.

Suitableness to the joints.

Sartorius muscle.

Oblique muscles of the head.

Antagonist muscles in the arm.

Not obstructing one another.

Action wanted where their substance would

be inconvenient..

Variety of figure.

How many must be right for healtli.

Particular muscles.

Celerity of motion.

Ton gue M outh N ose.

Music Writing.

Sphincters.

b2

COWTEMTS.

Combination Delicacy . Mechanical disadvantages. Single muscles. Lower jaw.

Perforation of tendons. Bandage at the ankles. * Hypothesis from appetency repelled. KeilPs enumeration of muscles. Why mechanism not more Rtiiking. Description inferior to inspection. Quotation from Steno.

CHAPTER X.

OP THB YBSSBLS OF ANIMAL BODIBS.

1. Circulation of the blood.

Disposition of the blood-vessels Arteries Veins.

The heart as receiving and returning the blood.

As referable to the lungs.

Valves of the heart.

Vital motions involuntary.

Pericardium.

2. Alimentary system.

Passage of the food through the stomach to the

intestines. of the chyle through the lacteals and

thoracic duct to the blooiL Length of intestines. Peristaltic motion. Tenuity of the lacteals. Valves of the thoracic duct. Entrance of near the neck.

3. Gall bladder.

Oblique insertion of the biliary duct into the intestines.

4. Parotid gland and duct

5. Larynx. Trachea^GuUet— Epiglottis. Rings of the trachea. Sensibility Musical instrument. Lining the arm to the head.

CONTENTS. XI

CHAPTER XL

OF THB ANIMAL STRUCTURE RBOARDBl[^ AS A MASS.

1. Correspondence of sides.

Not belonging tx> the separate limbs. Nor to the internal contents. Nor to the feeding vessels.

2. Package. Heart Lungs. Liver. Bladder. Kidneys. Pancreas. Spleen. Omentum. Septa of the brain. Guts Mesentery.

3. Beauty.

In animated nature.

In flowers.

Whether any natural sense of beauty.

4. Concealment.

5. Standing.

6. Interrupted analogies.

Periosteum covering all bones except the

teeth. Skin terminating at the nails.'* Solid case for the brain.

CHAPTER Xn.

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.

1 . Covering of animals. Of man Of birds. Structure of feathers. Black down.

2. Mouths of animals. Bills of birds. Serrated bills. Affinity of mouths.

XII CONTEMTS.

3. GulleU of animals.

4. Intestines of animals. Valvule conniventes. Length of intestines.

5. Bones of animals. of birds.

6. Lungs of animals. of birds.

7. Binls oviparous.

8. Instruments of motion. Wings of birds.

Fins of fish*

Web.feet of water-fowl.

9. Senses of animals.

CHAPTER XIIL

PBCULIAR ORGANISATIONS.

Pax-wax of quadrupeds.

Oil of birds.

Air-bladder of fish.

Fang of viper.

Bag of opossum.

Pelvis.

Middle claw of heron.

Stomach of camel.

Tongue of woodpecker.

Babyrouessa.

CHAPTER XIV.

PROSPBCTIVB CONTRIVANCBK.

Teeth.

Temporary and permanent.

Milk.

Eye of the foetus.

Lungs of the foetus-^Foramen ovale.

Ductus arteriosus, &c.

CONTENTS. XUI

CHAPTER XV.

RBLATI0N8, ILLUSTRATED IN A WATCH.

Alimentary system.

Kidneysy ureters, and bladder.

Eyes, hands, feet

Sexes.

Teats and mouth.

Particular relations.

Swan.

Mole.

CHAPTER XVI.

COMPENSATION.

Elephant's proboscis.

Hook in the bat's wing.

Crane's neck.

Parrot's bill.

Spider's web.

Multiplying-eyes of insects.

Eye of the chameleon.

Intestines of the alopecias.

Snail Muscle Cockle Lobster.

Sloth Sheep.

More general compensations.

Want of fore.teeth Rumination.

In birds, want of teeth supplied by a gizzard.

Reptiles.

VOL. II. CHAPTER XVII.

THE RELATION OP ANIMATED BODIES TO INANIMATE NATURE.

Wings of birds Fins of fish Air and water.

Ear to the air.

Organs of speech— Voice and respiration to air.

XIV CORTENTS.

Eye to light.

Size of aDimals to external things.

Of the inhabitants of the earth and sea to their

elements. Sleep to night.

CHAPTER XVIII.

INSTINCTS.

Incubation of eggs. Deposition of eggs of insects. Solution from sensations considered.

CHAPTER XIX.

OF INSSCTS.

Elytra of the scarabeus.

Borer of flies.

Sting of the bee.

Proboscis.

Metamorphosis of insects.

Care of eggs.

Observations limited to particular species.

Thread of silk-worm and spider.

Wax and honey of bee.

Sting.

Forceps of the panorpa tribe. '

Brushes of flies.

Glow-worm.

Motion of the larva of the dragon-fly.

Gossamer spider.

Shell animals.

Snail shells.

Univalve shell-fish.

Bivalve.

Ijobster shell.

Variety of insects.

CHAPTER XX.

OF PLANTS.

Preservation, perfection, and dispersing of seed. Trees.

CONTENTS. XV

€iermination. Tendrils. Particular species.

VaUisneria. Cuflcuta Europflea. Missel toe.

Colchicum autumnale. DioQsea muscipula.

CHAPTER XXI.

THE ELEMENTS.

Consolidation of uses.

1. Air. Reflecting light Evaporating fluids. Restoratives of purity.

2. Water. Purity. Insipidity. Circulation.

3. Fire. Dissolvent power.

4. Light. Velocity. Tenuity.

CHAPTER XXII.

ASTRONOMY.

Fixing the source of light and heat in the centre. Permanent axis of rotation. Spheroidicity of the earth. Of centripetal forces. Attraction indifferent to laws. Admissible laws within narrow limits. Of admissible laws, the present the best. United attraction of a sphere, the same as of the constituent particles.

XTl CORTBNTS.

The apsides fixed.

Figures of the planetary orbits.

Buffon's hypothesis.

CHAPTER XXIII.

OF THE PERSONALITY OF THE DEfTY.

Not the object of our senses.

Contrivance proves personality.

Misapplication of laws.

Mechanism.

Second causes.

Of generation as a principle.

Atheistic suppositions.

Buffon's organic nodules.

Appetencies.

Analogies by which they are supported.

Camel's bunch.

Crane's thighs.

Pelican's pouch.

Analogy strained.

Solutions contradicted.

By ligaments Valves.

By senses of animals.

By the parts without motion.

By plants.

CHAPTER XXIV.

OF THE NATURAL ATTRIBUTES OF THE DErTY.

Omnipotence.

Omnipresence.

Omniscience.

"Eternity.

Self-exbtence. ,

Necessary existence.

Spirituality.

CONTENTS. XVU

CHAPTER XXV.

M

THE UNITY OF THE DEITY.

From the laws of attraction, and the presence

of light among the heavenly bodies. From the laws of nature upon our globe. Resemblance of animals. Fish. Insects.

CHAPTER XXVI.

THE GOODNESS OF THE DEITY.

From the parts and faculties of animals. The actual happiness of young animals.

winged insects.

aphides.

fish.

1. Of old age.

Of different animal habits. Prepollency of happiness. Causes of not observing it. Quotation.

Apparent exceptions. Venomous animals. Animals of prey.

2. Taste. Adaptation of senses. Property, origin of. Physical evils of imperfection.

finiteness.

bodily pain.

mortal diseases.

death.

Civil evils of population.

distinctions.

wealth.

idleness.

Objections from chance answered.

XVUl CONTENTS.

Must be chance in the midst of design.

Ignorance of observance.

Advantages of chance.

Disease.

Seasons.

Station.

Acquirability.

Sensible interposition.

Probation.

CHAPTER. XXVII.

CONCLUSION.

Natural religion prepares the way for revelation.

HONOURABLE AND RIGHT REVEREND t

SHUTE BARRINGTON, LL.D.

[.ORD BISHOP OP DURHAM.

Mv Lord,

The following Work was under- taken at your Lordship's recommendation, and, amongst other motives, for the purpose of making the most acceptahle return that I could, for a great and important benefit conferred upon me.

It may be unnecessary, yet not perhaps quite impertinent, to state to your Lordship, and to the reader, the several inducements that have led me once more to the press. The favour of my first and ever-honoured Patron had put me in posses- sion of so liberal a provision in the Church, as abundantly to satisfy my wants, and much to exceed my pretensions. Your Lordship's munifi- cence, in conjunction with that of some other excellent Prelates, who regarded my services

^^ DEDICATION.

with the partiality with which your Lordship was pleased to consider them, hath since placed me in ecclesiastical situations, more than adequate to every object of reasonable ambition. In the mean time, a weak, and, of late, a painful state of health, deprived me of the power of discharging the duties of my station in a manner at all suitable, either to my sense of those duties, or to my most anxious wishes concerning them. My inability for the public functions of my profession, amongst other consequences, left me much at leisure. That leisure was not to be lost. It was only in my study that I could repair my deficiencies in the Church ; it was only through the press that I could speak. These circumstances entitled your Lordship in particular to call upon me for the only species of exertion of which I was capable, and disposed me without hesitation to obey the call in the best manner that I could. In the choice of a subject I had no place left for doubt : in saying which, I do not so much refer, either to the supreme importance of the subject, or to any scepticism concerning it with which the present times are charged, as I do to its connexion with the subjects treated of in my former publications. The following discussion alone was wanted to

DEDICATION.

moke up my works into a system ; in which works, such as they are, the public have now before them, the Evidences of Natural Religion, the Evidences of Revealed Religion, and an account of the duties that result from both. It is of small im- portance that they have been written in an order the very reverse of that in which they ought to be read. I commend, therefore, the present volume to your Lordship's protection, not only as, in all probability, my last labour, but as the completion of a regular and comprehensive design.

Hitherto, my Lord, I have been speaking of myself, and not of my Patron. Your Lordship wants not the testimony of a Dedication ; nor any testimony from me : I consult, therefore, the im- pulse of my own mind alone when I declare, that in no respect has my intercourse with your Lord- ship been more gratifying to me, than in the opportanities which it has afforded me, of observ- ing your earnest, active, and unwearied solicitude, for the tidvancement of substantial Christianity; a solicitude, nevertheless, accompanied with that candour of mind, which suffers no subordinate differences of opinion, when there is a coincidence in the main intention and object, to produce any

i

XXII DEDICATION.

alienation of esteem, or diminution of favour. It

is fortunate for a country, and honourable to its

government, when qualities and dispositions like

these are placed in high and influencing stations.

Such is the sincere judgment which I have formed

of your Lordship's character, and of its public

value : my personal obligations I can never forget.

Under a due sense of both these considerations, I

beg leave to subscribe myself, with great respect

and gratitude,

My Lord,

Your Lordship's faithful

And most devoted Servant,

WILLIAM PALEY.

Bishop. WearmoMih, July, 1802.

NATURAL THEOLOGY.

^

CHAPTER I.

STATE OF THE ARGUMENT.

In crossing a lieatli, suppose I pitched my foot against a */o«e, and were asked how the stone came to l>e there; I might possibly answer, that, for any thing I knew to the contrary, it had lain there for ever: nor would it perhaps be very easy to show the abfiurdityof this answer. But suppose I had found a watch upon the ground, and it should be inquired bow the watch happened to be in that place j I should hardly think of the answer which I had be- fore given, that for any thing 1 knew, the watch might have always been there. Yet wliy should not this answer serve for the watch as well as for the stone? why is it not as admissible in the se- cond case, as in the first? For this reason, and for no other, viz. that, when we come to inspect the watch, we perceive (what we could not discover in the stone) that its several parts are framed and put

2 STATE OF

together for a purpose, e. g. that they are so formed and adjusted as to produce motion^ and that mo- tion so regulated as to point out the hour of the day : that if the different parts had been differently shaped from what they are, of a differe^l mxfi from what they are, or placed after any other manner, or in any other order, than that in which they are placed, either no motion at all would have been carried on in the machine, or none which would have answered the use that is now served by it. To reckon up a few of the plainest of these parts, and of their offices, all tending to one result :— we see a cylindrical * box containing a coiled elastic spring, which, by its endeavour to relax itself, turns round the box. We next observe a flexible chain (artificially wrought for the sake of flexure) communicating the action of the spring from the box to the Aisee.' We then find a series, of wheels,'' ** '* ** the teeth of which catch in, and apply. \o, each other, conducting the motion fit)m the

^ The ipring and barrel, or first power, with the ckain> which connects it to—

* The fusee and great wheel. The fusee is tapered at the top to correct the irregular recoil of the spring. The great wheel

* The centre wheel and pinion, which m»kea one revolution in an hour, carries the minute hand, and turns

* The third wheel and pinion, which turns the contrate wheel.

* The contrate wheel, which makes one revolution in a minute, and turns the balance or escape wheel.

* The balance wheel, which acts upon the pallats of the verge, and escapes, or drops firom one pallat to another alternately, there- by keeping the balance in constant vibration.

A^ IB < J

,7

<s

•-

^

i

to

Jruh^i..>-hfi 6y »^ Pvncaru. Ojc/crd,.

TRE ARGUMKNT.

3

fnsee to the I)alance,* and from the balance to the pointer;*-"-"' and at the same time, by the size and shape of those wheels, so regulating that motion, as to. terminate in causing an index, by an equable and measured progression, to pass over a given space in a given time. We take notice that the wheels are made of brass in order to keep them from rust; the springs of steel, no other metal be- ing so elastic; that over the face of the watch there is placed a glass, a material employed in no other part of the work, but in the room of which, if there had been any other than a transparent pnbKtance, the hour could not be seen without opening the case. This mechanism being ob- KTved (it requires indeed an examination of the iBstrnment, and perhaps some pi-evious knowledge of the subject, to perceive and understand it; but being once, as we have said, observed and under- stood,) the inference, we think, is inevitable, that the watch must have had a maker: that there

' Tbe baianee verge and balance or pmtdulunt tprhtg, which Kgul&lcs the nhole mHcliiiie.

TTie cannon pinion, affixed to the ceDlre wheel arbour, on vbich the minute hand is placed.

The minute wheel.

'" The h'>ur wheel. These wheels are turned by the ctumOD pimon, and having a greater number of teeth, move much slower dun the cannon ptnioit, and mark the hour by iJie hand on the dial.

The above is a description of the several wheels alluded to by ^fcy. Their relative eitiialion, and combined movement, may Uieea, by the umple inspection of a watch. B 2

STATE OF

mast have existed, at some time, aAd at tome place or other, an artificer or artificers, who formed it for the purpose which we find it actually to an^ swer; who comprehended its construction, and designed its use.

I. Nor would it, I apprehend, weaken the con^ elusion, that we had never seen a watch made ; that we had never known an artist capable of making one : that we were altogether incapable of execut- ing such a piece of workmanship ourselves, or of understanding in what manner it was performed ; all this being no more than what is true of some exquisite remains of ancient art^ of some lost arts^ and, to the generality of mankind, of the more cu- rious productions of modem manufacture. Does one man in a million know how oval frames are turned ? Ignorance of this kind exalts our opinion of the unseen and unknown artisfs skill, if he be unseen and unknown, but raises no doubt in our minds of the existence and agency of such an ar- tist, at some former time, and in some place or other. Nor can I perceive that it varies at all the inference, whether the question arise concerning a human agent, or concerning an agent of a dif- ferent species, or an agent possessing, in some re- spects, a different nature.

II. Neither, secondly, would it invalidate our conclusion, that the watch sometimes went wrong, or that it seldom went exactly right. The pur- pose of the machinery, the design, and the de- signer, might be evident, and in the case supposed

THS ABGUHENT. 5

would be evident, in whatever way we accounted for the irregularity of the movement, or whether we could account for it or not. It is not necessai-y that a machine be perfect, in order to shew with what design it was made: still less necessary, wliere the only question is, whether it were made with any design at all.

III. Nor, thirdly, would it bring any uneer- tainty into the argument, if there were a few parts of the watch, concerning which we could not dis- cover, or had not yet discovered, in what manner they conduced to the general effect ; or even some parts, concerning which we could not ascertain, whether they conduced to that effect in any man- ner whatever. For, as to the first branch of the case; if by the loss, or disorder, or decay of the ports in question, the movement of the watch were found in fact to be stopped, or disturbed, or retard- vd, no doubt would remain in our minds as to the utility or intention of these parts, although we should be unable to investigate the manner ac- cording to which, or the connexion by wliich, the oldmate effect depended upon their action or as- feistance; and the more complex is the machine, the more likely is this obscurity to anse. Then, as to the second thing supposed, namely, that Uiere were parts which might be spared, without prejudice to the movement of the watch, and that we had proved this by experiment these super- fittoos part«, even if we were completely assured that they were sucb, would not vacate the reason-

6 BTATS OP

mg which we had instituted concemiog other parts. The iBdieation of contrivance remained, with respect to them, nearly as it was before.

IV. Nor, fourthly, would any man in his senses think the existence of the watch, with its various machinery, accounted for, by being told that it was one out of possible combinations of material forms; that whatever he had found in the place where he found the watch, must have contained some internal configuration or other; and that this configuration might be the structure now ex- hibited, viz. of the works of a watch, as well as a differwt structure.

V. Nor, fifthly, would it yield his inquiry more satisfiactiim to be answered, that there existed in things a principle of order, which had disposed the parts of the watch into their present form and si- taatiou. He never knew a watch made by the principle of order; nor can he even form to him- self an idea of what is meant by a principle of order distinct from the intelligence of the watch- maker.

VI. Sixthly, he would be surprised to hear that the mechanism of the watch was no proof of con*- trivance^ only a motive to induce the mind to think so.

VII. And not less surprised to be informed, that the watch in his hand was nothing more than the result of the laws of metallic nature. It is a per- version of language to assign any law as the efll- cient^ operative cause of any thing. A law pre-

THE ABSUHENT.

supposes an agent; for it is only the mode, according to which an agent proceeds: it implies ' a power j for it is the order, according to which tliat power acts. Without this agent, without this power> which are both distinct from itself, the law does nothing ; is nothing. The expression, '* the law of metallic nature," may sound strange and harsh to a philosophic ear; but it seems quite as justifiable as some others which are more familiar to him, such as " the law of vegetable nature,' ** the law of animal nature," or indeed as " the law of nature" in general, when assigned as the cause o( phenomena, in exclusion of agency and power- or when it is substituted into the place of these.

VIII. Neither, lastly, would our observer be driven out of his conclusion, or from his confidence in its truth, by being told that he knew nothing at all about the matter. He knows enough for his argument : he knows the utility of the end : he knows the subserviency and adaptation of the means to the end. These points being known, his ignorance of other points, his doubts concern- ing other points, affect not the certainty of his reasoning. The consciousness of knowing little, need not beget a distrust of that which he does know.

9 «TAT£ OF THB

CHAPTER II.

STATE OP THB ARGUMENT CONTUHUBD,

Suppose, in the next place, that the person who found the watch, should, after some time, discover that, in addition to all the properties which he had hitherto observed in it, it possessed the unexpect- ed property of producing, in the course of its movement, another watch like itself, (the thing is conceivable ;) that it contained within it a mecha- nism, a system of parts, a mould for instance^ or a complex adjustment of lathes, files, and other tools, evidently and separately calculated for this purpose I let us inquire, what effect ought such a discovery to have upon his former conclusion.

I. The first effect would be to increase his ad- miration of the contrivance, and his conviction of the consummate skill of the contriver. Whether he regarded the object of the contrivance, the dis* tinct appai-atus, the intricate, yet in many parts intelligible mechanism, by which it was carried on, he would perceive, in this new observation, nothing but an additional reason for doing what he had already done, for referring the construc- tion of the watch to design, and to supreme art.

AKGUMENT CONTINUED. V

If that construction without this property, or which 18 the same thing, before this property had been noticed, proved intention and art to have been employed about it; still more strong would the proof appear, when he came to the knowledge of this further property, the crown and perfection of all the rest.

II. He would reflect, that though the watch ' before him were, in some sense, the maker of ths watch which was fabricated in the course of ita movements, yet it was in a very diiferent sense from that in which a carpenter, for instance, is the maker of a chair; the author of its contrivance, the cause of the relation of its parts to their use. With respect to these, the first watch was no cause at all to the second: in no such sense as this was it the author of the constitution and order, either uf the parts which the new watch contained, or of the parts by the aid and instrumentality of which it was produced. We might possibly say, but with great latitude of expression, that a stream of water ground corn; but no latitude of expression would albw us to say, no stretch of eonjecture could lead us to think, that the stream of water built the mill, though it were too ancient for us to know who the builder was. What the stream of water does in the alTair, is neither more nor less thao this; by the application uf an uuiutelligent impulse to a mechanism previously arranged, ar- ranged independently of it, and arranged by intel- ligence, an effect is produced, viz. the corn is

10

8T-4TE OP THE

ground. But the effect results from the arrange- ment. The force of the stream cannot be sfud to be the cause or author of the effect, still less of the arrangement, llnderstanding and plan in the for- mation of the mill were not the less necessary, for any share which the water has in grinding the com; yet is this share the same as that which the wat(A would have contributed to the production of the new watch, upon tlie supposition assumed in the last section. Therefore,

III. Though it be now no longer probable, that the individual watch, which our observer had found, was made immediately by the hand of an artificer, yet doth not this alteration in any-wise affect the inference, that an artificer had been ori- ginally employed and concerned in the. produc- tion. The argument from design remains as it was. Marks of design and contrivance are no more accounted for now, than they were before. In the same thing, we may ask for the cause of different properties. We may ask for the cause of (he colour of a body, of its hai'dness, of its heat ; and these causes may be all different. We are now asking for the cause of that subserviency to a use, that relation to an end, which we have i-e- marked in the watch before us. No answer ia ' given to this question, by telling us that a preced- ing watch produced it. There cannot he design without a designer; contrivance, without a con- triver; order, without choice; arrangement, with- out any tiling capable of arranging.; subaerriency

AnoUMENT CONTIIfUED. \t

and relation to a purpose, without that which could intend a purpose; means suitable to an end, and executing their office, in accomplishing that end; without the end ever having been contempiatedi or the means accommodated to it. Arrangement; disposition of parts, subserviency of means to an end, relation of instruments to a use, imply the presence of intelligence and mind. No one, there- fore, can rationally believe, that the insensible, in-i animate watch, from which the watch before US iBBDed, was the proper cause of the mechanism we So much admire in it; could be truly aaid to have ooustinictcd the instrument, disposed its parts, as- signed their office, determined their order, action, and mutual dependency, combined their several motions into one result, and that also a result con- Dected with the utilities of other beings. All these properties, therefore, are as much unaccount- ed for, as they were before.

IV. Nor is any thing gained by running the difBcnIty fiirther back, t. e. by supposing the watch before us to have been produced from another watch, that from a former, and so on indefinitely. Our going back ever so far brings us no nearer to the least degree of satisfaction upon the subject. Contrivance is still unaccounted for. We still want a contriver. A designing mind is neither tnpplied by this supposition, nor dispensed with. If the difficulty were diminished the farther we went back, by going back indefinitely we might esbaosC it. And this is the only case to which

IS STATE OF TH£

this sort of reasoning applies. Where there is a tendency^ or^ as we increase the number of terms» a continual approach towards a limit, therey by supposing the number of terms to be what is call- ed infinite, we may conceive the limit to be at- tained : but where there is no such tendency, or approach, nothing is eflfected by lengthening the series. There is no diffisrence as to the point in question, (whatever there may be as to many points,) between one series and another; between a series which is finite, and a series which is infi- nite. A chmn, composed of an infinite number of links, can no more support itself, than a chain composed of a finite number of links. And of this we are assured, (though we never cmi have tried the experiment,) because, by increasing the num- ber of links, from ten for instance to a hundred, from a hundred to a thousand, &a we make not the smallest approach, we observe not the smallest tendency, towards self-support. Tbei*e is no dif- ference in this respect (yet there may be a great difierence in several respects) between a chain of a greater or less length, between one chain and another, between one tliat is finite and one that is infinite. This very much resembles the case be- fore us. Tlie machine which we are inspecting, demonstrates, by its construction, contrivance and design. Contrivance must have had a contriver; design, a designer; whether the machine imme- diately proceeded from another machine or noU That circumstance alters not the case. TtiaX other

ARG0MENT CONTIMUED. 19

tnacfaine may, in like manner, have proceeded from a former machine: nor does that alter the case ; contrivance must have had a contriver. That former one from one preceding it: no alteration still ; a contriver is still necessary. No tendency is percttved, no approach towards a diminution of this necessity. It is the same with any and erery succession of these machines ; a succession of len, of a hundred, of a thousand ; with one series as with another ; a series which is finite, as with a series which is infinite. In whatever other re- spects they may differ, in this they do not. In all, equally, contrivance and design arc anaccounted for.

The question is not simply. How came the first watch into existence? which question, it may be pretended, is done away by siipposing the series of watches thus produced from one another to hare been infinite, and consequently to have had no such first, for which it was necessary to pro- Tide a cause. This, perhaps, would have been nearly the state of the question, if nothing had been before us but an unorganized, unmechanized substance, witliout mark or indication of contriv- ance. It might be difficult to show that such substance could not have existed from etemity, either in succession (if it were possible, which I think it is not, for unorganized bodies to spring from one another.) or by individual perpetuity. But that is not the question now. To suppose it to be 80, is to suppose that it made no difference

14 STATE OF THE

whetber he liad found a iratch or a stone. As it is, the metaphjTsics of that question have no place ; for, in the watch which we are examining-, are seen contrivance, design ; an end, a purpose; means for the end, adaptation to the purpose. And the question which irresistibly presses upon our thoughts, is, whence this contrivance and design ? The thing required is the intending mind, the adapting hand, the intelligence by which that hand was directed. This question, this demand, is not shaken off, by increasing a number or succession of substances, destitute of these properties ; nor the more, by increasing that number to infinity. If it be said, that, upon the supposition of one watch being produced from another in the coui-se of that other's movements, and by means of the mechanism within it, we have a cause for the watch in my hand, viz. the watch from which it pi-oceeded: I deny, that for the design, the contrivance, the suitableness of means to an end, the adaptation of instruments to a use, (all wliich we discover in the watch,) we have any cause whatever. It is in