With References to the several Articles contributed hy each.

Page Adams, Henry, F.L.S.

Descriptions of a New Genus and some New Species of Shells from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq 143

Description of a New Genus of Shells from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq 272

Descriptions of some New Genera and Species of Shells from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq 383

Angas, George French, Corr. Mem. Z.S.

Notes on the Broad- fronted Wombat of South Australia {Phascolomys latifrons, Owen) 268

Baird, William, M.D., F.L.S.

Note on the Occurrence of Filaria sanguinea in the body of the Galaxias scriba, a Freshwater Fish from Australia . . 207

Page Note on the Lerrusa ajclopterina occurring in the Gills of the Cyelopterinus spinosus, a Fish from Greenland 239

Notice of the Occurrence of Sclerostoma equinum 1 in the Testicle of the Horse 27 1

Bartlett, a. D.

Notice of the Occurrence of the Pink-footed Goose, Anser phcenicopus 18

Additional Note on the Black-footed Rabbit 40

Exhibition of living examples of two singular hybrid Ducks from the Society's Menagerie 44

On the Affinities of Balceniceps . 131

Remarks on the Breeding of the larger Felidee in captivity 140

Remarks on the Japanese Masked Pig 263

Notes on the Breeding and Rearing of the Chinese Crane (Grus montignesia) in the Society's Gardens 369

Exhibition of specimens of young Polar Bears born in the Menagerie 391

Bennett, Dr. George, F.Z.S.

Letter addressed to the Secretary respecting a singular Grallatorial Bird living in Sydney, lately described in France as Rkinochetus jubatus 30

Note on the Egg of the Piping Crow or Magpie of New South Wales {Gymnorhina tibicen) 183

Extract from his letter respecting the Semipalmated Goose 266

Bleeker, Dr. P. v.. For. Memb. Z.S.

Conspectus generum Labroideorum analyticus 408

Blyth, Edward, Corr. Mem. Z.S.

Notes on some Birds collected by Dr. Jerdon in Sikkim. . 199 Extract from his letter respecting Rhinoceros crossii, Gray 306

Page Crisi', Edwards, M.D., F.Z.S.

Oa some points relating to the Habits and Anatomy of the Oceanic and of the Freshwater Ducks, and also of the Hare (Lepus timidus) and of the Rabbit (L. cuniculus), in relation to the question of Hybridism 82

Exhibition of drawings of two Fishes from a salt-water lagoon near Cape Coast Castle, West Africa 87

CoBBOLD, T. Spencer, M.D., F.L.S.

On Cystic Entozoa from the Wart-Hog and Red River-Hog 93

List of Entozoa, including Pentastomes, from Animals dying at the Society's Menagerie, between the years 1857-60 inclusive, with Descriptions of several New Species 117

DoHRN, Dr. H.

Descriptions of New Shells from the Collection of H. Cuming 205

Dow, Capt. John M., Corr. Mem. Z.S.

Extract from his letter respecting Anableps dowii 30


Solenacea nova CoUectionis Cumingianae 418

Gould, John, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c.

On a iNew Genus and Species of Parrakeet from Western Australia 100

Remarks on a Species of Woodpecker from Siam 182

Description of a New Species of the Family Caprimulgidce 1 82

Descriptions of Two New Species of Humming-Birds be- longing to the Genus Hypuroptila 198

Observations on Epthimiura tricolor 209


Page Gray, George Robert, F.L.S., F.Z.S.

Note on the Genus Basilornis , 183

List of Species composing the Family Mec/apodiidcB, with Descriptions of New Species, and some account of the Habits of the Species 288

Remarks on and Descriptions of New Species of Birds lately sent by Mr. A. R. Wallace from Waigiou, My sol, and Gagie Islands 427

Gray, Dr. John Edward, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., &c.

Description of a Soft Tortoise from Camboja 41

Description of a New Squirrel in the British Museum, from New Granada 92

List of Mammalia, Tortoises, and Crocodiles collected by M. Mouhot in Camboja 135

On a New Species of Water Tortoise {Geoclemmys mela- nosternd) from Darien 204

On the Habits of the Gorilla and other Tailless Long- armed Apes 212

Observations on an Immature Specimen of a Species of Calotragus 235

Notice of a Stag from Northern China, sent by Mr. Swinhoe to the Zoological Society 236

On the Habits of the Pipe- Fish and other Fishes 238

Observations on Mr. Du Chaillu's papers on " The New Species of Mammals " discovered by him in Western Equa- torial Africa 273

Notice of Helogale, a New Genus of Viverridce 308

Notice of a New Species of Pilot Whale {Globiocephalus) from the Coast of Dorsetshire 309

On a Large Species of Teredo, supposed to be the Animal of the Genus Furcella, Lam 313

Additional Observations on the Genus Cuscus 314


Page GtJNTHER, Dr. Albert, For. Memb. Z.S.

Account of the Reptiles sent by Dr. Wucherer from Bahia 1 2

On the Anatomy of Regenia ocellata 60

On the Anatomy of Monitor niloticus from Western Africa, and of Regenia albogularis 109

On a New Genus of Australian Fishes 116

On a New Species of the Family Boidce 142

On a New Species of Fish of the Genus Gerres 143

Second List of Siamese Reptiles 187

List of the Cold-blooded Vertebrata collected by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., in Nepal 213

Exhibition of a singular Fish called Saccolarynx Jlagellum /^

by Dr. Mitchell, and Ophiognathus ampullaceus by Dr. Har- wood 235

On a Collection of Fishes sent by Capt. Dow from the Pacific Coast of Central America 370

Exhibition of some Charrs from different localities in England, Wales, and Ireland 391

On a New Species oi Plectropoma from Australia 391

Hanley, Sylvanus.

Description of a New Leda 242

Description of a New Species of Fandora 272

Hewitson, W. C, F.Z.S.

Descriptions of some Butterflies from the Collection of Mr. Wallace 50

HoLDswoRTH, E. W. H., F.L.S., F.Z.S.

On an Undescribed Species of British Zoanthus 99


Page Huxley, Thomas H., Prof, of Nat, Hist, in the Government School of Mines, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S.

On the Brain of Ateles paniscus 247

Johnson, James Yate.

Description of a New Species of Cancer obtained at Madeira 240

Description of a Second Species of Acanthogorgia (Gray) 296

Notes on the Sea-Anemones of Madeira, with Descriptions of New Species 298

Leadbeater, B., F.Z.S.

Exhibition of fine examples of the Heads and Horns of Ovis ammon 235

Exhibition of the Heads of three Stags shot by Col. Sarel at Pekin 368

MoRCH, Otto A. L., of Copenhagen.

Review of the Vermetidce (Part I.) 145

Review of the FermetidcB (Part II.) 326

Neale, E. Vansittart, F.Z.S.

On Typical Selection, as a means of removing the diflScul- ties attending the Doctrine of the Origin of Species by Natural Selection 1

Newton, Alfred, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S.

Description of a New Species of Water-Hen (Gallinula) from the Island of Mauritius 18

Remarks on Pallas' s Sand- Grouse (^Syrrhaptes paradoxus) 203

On a Hybrid Duck 392

On some New or Rare Birds' Eggs 393


Page Pease, W. Harper.

Description of a New Species of MoUusca from the Pacific Islands 242

Peters, Dr. W., For. Mem. Z.S.

On the Asiatic Snake called Taphrometopon lineolatum by Prof. Brandt 47

Pfeiffer, Dr. L.

Descriptions of Forty-seven New Species of Land- shells from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq 20

Descriptions of New Land-shells in the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq ] 90

Descriptions of Sixteen New Species of Land-shells from the Collection of H. Cumiug, Esq 386

Salvin, Osbert, M.A., F.Z.S.

Descriptions of Three New Species of Birds from Guate- mala 202

On a Collection of Reptiles from Guatemala 227

Sclater, Philip Lutley, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to the Society.

Announcement of the transfer by Her Majesty the Queen of a specimen of Phacochoerus <xliani to the care of the Society , 30

Exhibition of a specimen of the American Meadow-Starling {Sturnella ludoviciana) 30

Exhibition of a specimen of a Caprimulgine Bird closely allied to Cosmetornia vexillaria, from the collection of E. Gabriel, Esq 44

Exhibition of the Hoof of a Bull {^Bos taurus, var. dome- stieus) from the Falkland Islands, belonging to Capt. Abbott 44



Additions and Corrections to the List of Birds of the Falk- land Islands 45

Additions to the Menagerie during the month of December 1860 , 59

Exhibition of a living specimen of a Water-Tortoise {Che- lodina longicoUis) from South Australia 59

Note on the Reproduction of the Red River-hog {Potamo- choerus penicillatus) in the Society's Menagerie 63

List of a Collection of Birds made by the late Mr. W. Osburu in Jamaica, with Notes 69

Exhibition of an example of Pent acrinus caput-medusce .. 87

Additions to the Menagerie during the months of January and February ' 101

Characters of some New Species of American Passeres . . 127

On a New Species of the Genus Copsychus from Borneo. . 185

On the addition to the Menagerie of some Three-toed Sand-grouse and some rare Australian Finches 196

List of Animals presented to the Society by H. E. Sir George Grey, K.C.B., F.Z.S 208

On a New Species of Bird of the Genus Lipaugus of Boie 209

Additions to the Menagerie during the months of March and April 1861 234

On the Island Hen of Tristran d'Acunha 260

Additions to the Menagerie during the month of May 1861 264

Report on some specimens of Animals forwarded by Capt. Speke 268

Exhibition of a cast of the Skull of the Aye-ilye {Chiromys madagascariensis) 306

Report of the return of Mr. Benstead from the Cape with a second collection of Animals, presented to the Society by Sir George Grey 307

Additions to the Menagerie duruig June 186 1 365



Additions to the Menagerie during July and August .... 366

Additions to the Menagerie during September 367

Additions to the Menagerie during October 368

Exhibition of original drawings by Mr. Vigne of Ovis cy- cloeeros 368

On a New Species of Finch, of the Genus Sycalis, from Mexico 376

Descriptions of Twelve New Species of American Birds, of the Families Dendrocolaptidce, Formicariidce, and Tyrannidce Zll

Exhibition of the Skins of an Otter from Amoy, and of a Hare from the Island of Formosa, forwarded by Mr. Swinhoe 389

Report on a collection of Skins shipped by Mr. Swinhoe on board the ' Harkaway ' 390

Note on the Ocellated Turkey of Honduras 402

Index generis ElainecB ex familia Tyrannidarum, additis novarum specierum diagnosibus 406

Shortt, Dr., F.Z.S.

Letter respecting an Indian Snake 265

Speke, Capt. J. H.

Letter relating to some specimens of animals from Zanzibar 267

Stevens, Samuel.

Exhibition of Birds forwarded by Mr. Wallace from Mysol and Waigiou 306

Stewart, John A.

Description of Asteronyx loveni, Miill. et Trosch., a New British Starfish 96


Page Stewart, Thomas Howard, M.R.C.S., F.Z.S.

Observations on the Anatomy of the Echinoderms 53

SwiNHOE, Robert, Corr. Mem. Z.S.

Letter relating to specimens from Pekin 1 34

Extracts from his letter respecting the Formosan Deer . . 235

Extracts from his letter relating to specimens sent from China 390

Tegetmeier, W. B.

Exhibition of some living specimens illustrating an unde- scribed abnormal variation of Plumage in the domestic Fowl. 102

Tomes, Robert F., Corr. Mem. Z.S.

Additions to the Monograph of the Genus Epomophorus 1 1

Notes on a Collection of Bats made by Mr. Andersson in the Damara Country, South-western Africa, with Notices of some other African species 31

Notes on a Collection of Mammals made by the late Mr. Osbum in Jamaica 63

On the Genus Monophyllus of Leach 87

Observations on the Genus Vumpyrus and its Allies .... 102

Report of a Collection of Mammals made by Osbert Salvin, Esq., F.Z.S., at Duefias, Guatemala, with Notes on some of the species by Mr. Fraser 278

Tristram, Rev. H. B., Corr. Mem. Z.S.

Catalogue of a Collection of Terrestrial and Fluviatile Mol- lusks made by 0. Salvin, Esq., M.A., F.Z.S., in Guatemala 229

Exhibition of a Snake from Pekin, and of a series of Pipits 391

Catalogue of a Collection of Mollusks from Bermuda .... 403


Page White, Adam, Assistant Zool. Dept., British Museum.

Description of Two Species of Crustacea belonging to the Families Callianasstdce and Squillidce , 42

Wuchj:rer, Dr. Otho, Corr. Mem. Z.S.

On the Ophidians of the Province of Bahia, Brazil (Part I.) 113

On the Ophidians of the Province of Bahia, Brazil (Part II.) 322

Description of a New Species of Elapomorphus from Brazil 325


Plate Page

I. Dentition of Epomophorus 11

,' y New Species of Land Shells 20

IV. Lepus cuniculus, var 40

V. Trionyx ornatus 41

VI. Callianassa turnerana "l ^^

VII. Gonodactylus guerinii /

VIII. Diadema divona, D. diomea, and Drusilla domitilla . \ rn

IX. Melanitis mimalon and M. leucocyma J


X a.* > Anatomy of the Echinoderms 53


XII. Potamochcerus penicillatus, foem. et juv 62

XIII. Chilonycteris osburni , 63

XIV. Vireo modestus and Lalates osburni 69

XV. Monophyllus redmanii S7

XVI. Sciurus gerrardi 92

XVII. Entozoa from the Wart and Red River Hogs 93

XVIII. Vampyrus auritus 102

XIX. Geophis guntheri and Nannoperca australis 113

XX, Entozoa 117

XXI. Hylobates pileattis 135

XXII. Felis concolor, juv 140

XXIII. Pelophilus fordii 142

XXIV. Gerres longirostris 142

XXV. Structm-e of tlie Vermetidce 145

XXVI. Rev. H. B. Tristram's and Dr. Dohrn's Shells , . 205, 229

XXVII. Cervus pseudaxis (?) 236

* In some copies of the ' Proceedings,' Plate X a has been wrongly numbered XL, and vice versa. The error will be readily detected on reference to the de- scription of these two plates, p. 58.


Plate Page

XXVIII. Cancer bellianus 2-10

XXIX. Brain of Ateles paniscus 247

XXX. GolUnula nesiotis 260

XXXI. Myoxomys salvini 278

XXXII. Megapodius quoyii, juv "|

XXXIII. reinwardtii, juv r 288

XXXIV. tumulus, juv J

XXXV. Grus montignesia 36.9

XXXVI. Phyllomyias semifusca and P. griseocapilla 377

XXXVII. Dr. Pfeiffer's new Land Shells 386

XXXVIII. Plectropoma richardsonii 391

XXXIX. New or rare Birds' Eggs •• 393

XL. Head of Meleagris ocellata 402

XLI. Elainea pallatangce 406

XLII. Podargus superciliaris 1

XLIII. Machcerirhynchus albifrons and Todopsis wallacii . . > 427

XLIV. Henicophaps albifrons )






January 8th, 1861 . Dr. Gray, V.P., in the Chair. The following papers were read : 1. On Typical Selection, as a means of removing the


OF Species by Natural Selection. By E. Vansittart Neale, F.Z.S.

The great interest excited in the scientific world by the theory of the origin of species proposed by Mr. Darwin, and the obscurity ne- cessarily attached to many of the data employed in the arguments adduced either in support of or in opposition to it, must be my apo- logy for bringing before this Society the following considerations, rest- ing upon admitted facts, but which appear to me both to elucidate the difficulties of that theory, and to suggest the means of overcoming them.

The strong points of Mr. Darwin's theory I apprehend to be, (1) the satisfactory explanation afforded by it of the analogies and dif- ferences observed in the various forms of living beings which have been, or actually are, the tenants of our globe ; (2) the fact, experimentally ascertainable, that the element of variation whence his explanations are derived exists in active operation at the present day. Mr. Darwin can say of the modifications of form manifested in living organisms.

Prog. Zool. Soc— 1801, No. I.



as Sir I. Newton said of the attractive force of the earth, " htjpo- theses non fingo." I appeal to a power which can be shown to be at work in the present world ; I ask only, is it capable of explaining the phsenomena observable now, or ascertained by probable induction to have occurred formerly upon it ?

These are great merits. But if these strong points of the theory are connected with the principle of diversity, whence the animal and vegetable creation derives the charm of its endless variety, it has, as I conceive, also its weak points connected with the opposite principle of unity : whence it attributes too large a share to death, and too small a share to life, in the formation of species.

In nature we find tivo powers at work, a principle of change pro- ducing varieties, and a principle of permanence producing species. Man is able, by making use of the principle of change, "adding up," as Mr. Darwin happily says, the successive minute differences of dif- ferent generations in different directions, to bring about wonderful transformations in the original form whence he started, from the Rock Pigeon, for example, educing Carriers, Tumblers, Runts, Fantails, &c., forms differing from each other more than do many undoubted natural species more, for instance, than Fieldfares differ from Thrushes, or "Wood Wrens from Willow Wrens. But, although man can do wonders through this principle of change, the principle oi permanence slips through his fingers. He can preserve his varie- ties in their distinctness, only so long as he intervenes to prevent their interbreeding. Leave Carriers and Tumblers, Fantails and Runts together, without pairing them, and a race will soon arise neither Carrier, nor Tumbler, nor Fantail, nor Runt, but apparently in the process of reverting towards the Rock Pigeon. But Fieldfares and Thrushes, Wood Wrens and Willow Wrens live on for generation after generation, side by side, and remain Fieldfares and Thrushes, Wood Wrens and Willow Wrens still.

That this is the case, is unquestionable. It is equally clear why it is the case. Each distinct species in nature interbreeds by preference with those of its own kind ; and if accidental unions do take place between nearly allied species, the offspring are either sterile or, at all events, much less fruitful than their parents. Here is the principle of permanence in nature, preventing the principle of change from producing confusion, as, again, the principle of change prevents the principle of permanence from producing monotony. Whence comes this principle of permanence ? I look to Mr. Darwin for an answer, in vain. All that he says on this point amounts only to the position that the progeny of nearly allied species are not always sterile. That the preservatory tendency does not necessarily accompany a given amount of external difference is clear ; for man can produce in living organisms external differences greater than those associated in nature with this principle of permanence, without calling that principle into action. To attribute it to the greater length of time occupied in the formation of natural species than in that of a variety, is to make an assumption wholly destitute of proof, and indeed inconsistent with a very beau- tiful and essential part of Mr. Darwin's hypothesis, namely, the doc-


trine that the living principle never loses its energy, and that the power of life now at work on our globe has been transmitted, unchanged in its essence, though infinitely richer in its manifestations, from the first inhabitants of the earth to the generations inhabiting it at the present day.

If then, Mr. Darwin may appeal to the principle of change dis- closed in living organisms, as a " true cause," capable of accounting for the mutual affinities of species by the supposition of descent from a common origin, those who are opposed to his views are no less entitled to appeal to the principle of permanence, disclosed in these organisms, as a real force, not to be explained away, but requiring to be reconciled with the principle of change in any theory which shall satisfactorily account for the origin of species.

It appears to me that this reconciliation may be effected through the intervention of a conception proposed by one of whose labours and reputation we are justly proud, as an explanation of the " homo- logies" of structure, which he has profoundly illustrated. I mean the conception of the typical character pervading all organic life. But to make this apparent, I mvist premise some remarks on the characteristics of natural types. The types of nature must be care- fully distinguished from the types of art. The types of art are forms realized in their perfection in some particular individual. A Phidias may produce a Jupiter, a Minerva, or a Venus, as the perfect out- ward embodiment of the ideal of Majesty, or "Wisdom, or Grace. A Danecker may toil for years, in labour with his conception of the head of Christ. But in each case, the type, when realized, is a fixed, individualized object, expressing some one predominant characteristic, to which all others, though not necessarily lost, are subordinate. The types of nature are, as I conceive, ideals not of external form, but of internal relations, each realized in countless modifications of forms differing from one another in infinitely varied particulars, but balanced around central points common to them all. B)itthe pre- servation of this balance depends upon the aptness of each variety of the type for interbreeding with all the rest, and thus perpetually recombining its own peculiarities with theirs. If any of the varieties by the action and reaction of which a type is preserved become locally distinct from the others, subtypes will arise ; as we find to be the case in mankind. The original type becomes the centre of a circle including many lesser circles, where we find the same tendency re- peated. Now this character of natural types offers a mode of passage from one type to another. Assume a subtypical variety to acquire a special aptness for interbreeding with itself, to the exclusion of other varieties, and it would become an independent type. But how is this special aptness to be acquired ? That it does not accompany the formation of subtypes we see in numerous instances ; and it would clearly be inconsistent with the idea of a natural type that it should do so, if, as has been suggested, it is the characteristic of such a type to preserve itself by the mutual actions of its varieties. That it should belong to some one variety and not to others, in virtue of the general principle of variation, is a supposition inconsistent with


itself: a general principle must apply to every individual case. There remains only tlie hypothesis of a special selection, by which particular varieties are internally modified, so as to acquire this special aptitude. Now such a special selection appears to me to involve the transition, which must take place at some point in all physical research, from conditioned, to self-conditioning power, from will working by uphold- ing laws, to will working by constituting the laws to be upheld ; in other words, we must resort to the hypothesis of an intelligent action as the only intelligible one. Accordingly it is to an intelligent choice, exercised upon the infinity of possible variations capable of arising in different organisms, through the laws belonging to their natures, that I would attribute the formation of species by what I venture to call Typical selection.

When that Power, of whose ordering will I conceive nature to be the expression, purposes to produce a new race, I suppose It to select from some existing race those individuals which show a disposition to vary in the desired direction, so modifying their constitutions as to render their unions with each other more prolific than their unions with other individuals differently formed, and if they are conscious agents, so modifying their instincts as to give them a pre- ference for each other. How this internal modification is produced, I no more attempt to explain than Mr. Darwin attempts to explain how life was originally produced and is continued. The one act is not more difficult to conceive than the other. But there is no neces- sity for supposing the modification to be considerable in any one case. Divine providence need not be in a hurry. The amount of change at any step of the process of forming a new species, may be very small, and the completion of that process may require many generations.

The modification of the sexual instinct and fertility of sexual unions may be gradually introduced, and at first be scarcely percep- tible. But if the alteration be brought about by an internal action tending always in the same direction, each generation will approxi- mate more closely to the character of a new type ; and by the time that the external change has become considerable, a corresponding amount of internal change will have been produced. A new phase of the principle of permanence will have taken its place in creation, amongst the many phases of the principle of change ; the variety will be transformed into a species.

By this conception of the origin of species, we escape from another serious difficulty, which appears to me to lie in the way of the con- ception of their formation by such a process of external selection as Mr. Darwin assumes. "When we are asked to suppose that diflfer- ences so considerable as we observe between different organisms, past or present, have been brought about by a process precisely analogous to that by which man can change the shape of a sheep or a pigeon, we naturally ask whether there are no limits to the amount of change producible by man ? Could he, by any degree of watchfulness how- ever long continued, expand a race of sparrows to the size of condors, or condense a race of turkeys to the size of humming-birds, or


lengthen out a pig's snout, and thicken his legs and body into a truuk and frame similar in size to the elephant ? Mr. Darwin must contend that this would be possible, if man continued to act uninterruptedly, for a sufficient length of time in the same direction. Perhaps future experiments may enable us to speak with certainty upon this point. At present I conceive the general feeling of the most experienced breeders would be against him. It may be true that they " habitu- ally speak of an animal's organization as something quite plastic, which they can mould almost as they please " by the principle of selection (Darwin, p. 31). Yet Mr. Darwin also tells us that "all the breeders of the various domestic animals, and cultivators of plants, with whom he has ever conversed, or whose treatises he has read, are firmly convinced that the several breeds to which they have attended are descended from so manj'^ aboriginally distinct species " {id. p. 28). Now they are no doubt mistaken in this notion ; and it is easy to see whence the mistake has arisen, namely, from each one having attended only to one out of many possible kinds of variation, pro- ducible in the particular animal or plant forming the object of his care. But it is difficult to conceive whence the general notion could be derived, if each breeder found no limit, no stop, to the amount of variation which he can produce in the particular direction selected by him for experiment.

But this difficulty disappears, like that first stated, if the process of selection be transferred from the external action of circumstance, to the internal action of the living Power gradually modifying the con- stitution of the individual. It is a supposition agreeable to common experience, that to each particular constitution, certain limits of change are assigned, within which the possible varieties of the creature possessing it fluctuate. But if the constitution changes, these limits must be presumed to change also. Each fresh species, then, may be regarded as a resting-place in the advance of life, the development of the possible varieties inherent in it being left to the external action of circumstances ; while among these the Power manifested in life selects the forms most suitable to be converted into other species, and thus carries on the differentiation of living beings a step further in its proposed course.

Other grave difficulties disappear if we accept the idea of" typical," in place of "natural" selection. One very serious one, in my judg- ment, is the difficulty of seeing how natural varieties could perpetuate themselves at all, if they retained that mutual prolificuess character- istic of all the varieties upon which we can experimentalize.

Able and ingenious as is Mr. Darwin's argument to show that selection, by the " struggle for existence" is possible, he seems to me, throughout the whole of it, to confuse two distinct conception?, namely, the effect of peculiarities of structure in giving one plant or animal an advantage over another, and the preservation of those peculiiirities. His reasoning would be conclusive if applied to a state of things where each different variety was distinguished by an exclusive disposition to produce its own kind, as we actually find to be the case with species ; but he applies it to a state of things


where, by his own hypothesis, he has swept away the ground of his argument. If one variety of wading birds possessed longer bills than another, this "advantage" might lead to the ultimate annihilation of the short-bills, through the more rapid multiplication of the long, if a loug-billed parent always produced a long -billed offspring. But if the long-bills and the short live side by side, as they must do if they are to struggle for existence, and possess that aptness and disposition for interbreeding which all known varieties are experi- mentally found to possess, and the laws of interbreeding be supposed to be what they now are, long-bills and short would soon merge into one race of medium-billed birds, between whom the struggle for ex- istence would be reduced to one of individual strength. In con- nexion with this topic, the fact insisted upon by Mr. Darwin must be borne in mind, that intercrossing between varieties is conducive to fertility, as on the other hand breeding in and in is well known to cause uuhealthiness, if not sterility. On the whole, then, I conclude that the permanent distinction of type which Mr. Darwin assumes to result as a co7isequence from the struggle for existence, is really a necessary condition, in order that this struggle may assume the form of a contest of races.

Illustrations of this position might be endlessly multiplied. I will adduce one only, drawn from the instance of the humble bee and the honey bee, the origin of whose architectural powers is the subject of a most interesting and ingenious discussion in Mr. Darwin's work. He adduces, as the "advantage" of the honey bee, and therefore the constitutive principle of its peculiarities, the economy of wax in the construction of its cells when compared with the round imper- fectly connected cells of the humble bee ; for thus, in seasons when honey was scarce a saving in food might result. But the humble bee still raises her lowly dwellings along side of the palatial store- houses of her insect neighbour. Whatever the vicissitudes of the seasons may have been, since she first appeared on the earth. Death has not swept her away ; she survives now. What probable ground, then, is there for assuming that she was not present when Mr. Darwin's incipient honey bee began its work, to destroy by intercrosses the peculiarities of her rival, and bring down its " advantages " to the common level 1

It is unnecessary to dwell upon the complete removal of this diffi- culty, by the supposition of "typical selection." But more notice is requisite of the bearing of this supposition upon another subject, whereon Mr. Darwin's hypothesis of selection by means of the struggle for existence has produced much controversy, namely, the evidence of the " stone-book." That, if a new species can be formed at all by "natural selection," it can be only as the ultimate result of a long balancing of rival tendencies, ending in the preponderance of one side, Mr. Darwin admits. It follows, as he also admits, that each new species, if thus formed, must have left behind it a long trail of intermediate forms between itself and the species whence it arises. Now, we do not find this " trail ; " the links are wanting in many cases ; and Mr. Darwin's explanation of their failure is, that they once


existed, but that the evidence of their existence has either not yet turned up, or has been altogether swept away.

Other eminent geologists have questioned the probabiHty, if not the possibiUty of this total sweeping away of the links wanted to bind together, upon Mr. Darwin's supposition, the forms known to have existed. I do not propose to enter into this controversy, but only to remark that, whatever difficulty may arise from the absence of inter- mediate forms in tracing connected lines of descent of the different forms whose existence has been ascertained, it is most materially di- minished on the hypothesis of typical selection, (1) because the advance in each case will be always in the same direction, and there- fore the interval between one marked form and another will be indi- cated by much fewer steps than are required on INIr. Darwin's supposition, even if each step be very gradual ; (2) because it is con- sistent with our present experience, that a very considerable amount of change may take place in animal or vegetable organisms at once. I will refer only to General Tom Thumb, and the Giant whose skeleton is preserved in the College of Surgeons, in proof of the im- portant departures from the ordinary human scale of proportion which may be produced at one birth, under the ascertained laws of life. Now, suppose individuals, male and female, characterized by the possession of forms thus departing from the general human standard, to be selected to constitute a new human species, forming the centre of variations extending on all sides of the type thus manifested, and the process to be repeated three or four times, hj transitions of equal magnitude on each occasion, in both directions ; we should arrive at forms almost as distinct from each other as Swift's men of Lilhput and Brobdinguag. And yet the intermediate variations might succeed each other at short intervals, and leave but scanty traces of their existence in any geological record. The Lilliputian and Brob- dingnagian students of geology might thus find it as difficult to connect their own history with that of the present race of mankind, by geological evidence, as we find it to trace the descent of Teleostean fishes, or Saurian amphibians, by the same records.

The conception of "typical selection" seems also to elucidate another subject, not altogether unencumbered with difficulty on Mr. Darwin's hypothesis, namely, the disappearance of types. If one species is educed out of another by a modification of the sexual character of some particular variety of the first, whence it acquires a peculiar aptness and disposition for interbreeding, this variety would be withdrawn from the circle of varieties by whose mutual action the original type was preserved. Consequently the type would itself have a tendency to alter ; and if several varieties were thus withdrawn from any type, it would seem that this type must change into some modification of itself, and take its place amid the circle of variously related types evolved out of its origiiaal unity. The process would be analogous to what appears to have happened in some cases, where, through local circumstances or human interference, many distinct varieties of the same plant or animal have been formed, as in the case of wheat, of horses, of dogs, and of man himself; and the result


seems to accord with many ascertained facts in the relations of plants and animals, living and extinct.

If in the course of these observations I have been occupied in criticising rather than in defending Mr. Darwin's views, the object of this criticism has been to separate what I regard as a most valuable scientific conception, from association with a theory which, though highly ingenious, is entirely hypothetical, and, in my judgment untenable.

That there is a principle of variation at work around us in the living world, animal and vegetable, is certain. That by adding up successive changes effected by this principle, we can bring about a large sum of total change, is ascertained. The idea that the variety of living beings to be observed on the earth has arisen from the long- continued operation of this ascertained principle of variation during the countless ages when, as we learn from geology, a vast succession of creatures gradually tending to similarity with those existing now, have followed each other as its occupants creation, to use the forcible language of Professor Owen, ever compensating for extinction is an idea full of the promise of scientific results, because it seeks to explain the unknown by the known or knowable, and to sub- stitute thought interpreting experiment, in place of thought dealing only with itself. This true scientific character forms the distinction between Mr. Darwin's fundamental hypothesis and the theories of those who like Lamarck, or the author of the 'Vestiges of Creation,' have previously attempted to embrace under one comprehensive thought the riches of the organic world. They presented only con- jectures incapable of being tested ; he has offered a conception re- specting the past, which may be tested by the study of the present.

But this observation applies only to the conception that sjiecific differences arise from selection. In referring the method of selection to the " struggle for existence," Mr. Darwin leaves the solid ground of experiment for the airy regions of ingenious hypothesis. The " struggle for existence " is perpetually going on around us ; yet Mr. Darwin has not adduced a single case of even an approach to the formation of a new species as its ascertained result. All his instances of the effects produced by the addition of minute changes, in animal or vegetable organisms, are instances where the principle of variety is modified in its operation by the principle of intelligent choice. That the last principle has been concerned in producing the changes observed in nature, we cannot, indeed, show directly ; but when we learn experimentally that, by this means, something very like natural species can be produced, surely it is more accordant with the sobriety of science to assume that by this means also natural species have been produced, than to refer their production to another principle, which cannot be shown to be in operation at all, and of which, if it is in operation, we cannot show how it could bring about the effects attributed to it.

I have said " something very like natural species ; " for, as has been observed above, man cannot confer upon his varieties the sclf-})re- serving power characteristic of true species. But this is only accordant


with the universal analogy of the distinction between man's work and the works of what we call Nature. Man always works from with- out, Nature from within. But otherwise their works are subject to similar conditions. The crystalline lens of the eye is formed of elementary particles, held together by molecular or chemical attrac- tion, as is the lens of the eyeglass. The formation of the optical image, the prevention of diffraction, is brought about in each case by an observance of the same principles of construction. But the eye- glass is shaped and put together by a power operating from without, ui)on masses of elementary particles, already drawn to each other by their natural attractions. The lens of the eye is formed by a power working from within, which draws these elementary particles together, by secret processes, into positions where their natural attractions keep them in the required arrangement.

So is it, as 1 conceive, in the formation of species. Man and Nature both bring about changes of form in organized beings, by the same process, namely, by directing into particular channels the ten- dency to vary inherent in all organisms, "adding up " in different di- rections the sum total of many changes, tending the same way. Both effect this addition by the same instrumentality, namely, by favouring sexual intercourse in the organisms which show a tendency to vary in the required direction, and impeding it in those which do not. But man, working in this case as in every other from without, can effect his "additions" only by bringing the suitable organisms to- o-ether for the purpose of that intercourse, and keeping the unsuitable apart. Nature, working, in this case as in every other, from within, effects her additions by so modifying the wish for this intercourse, that the animals whom she desires to bring together shall prefer each other's society, and so modifying its consequences, that accidental unions of organisms, whether animal or vegetable, with other than the organisms su